POPULATION


POPULATION
-THE JEWISH POPULATION Growth by Aliyah In 1882 the Jewish population of Ereẓ Israel numbered some 24,000, roughly 5% of the total, and about 0.3% of the world Jewish population. Since then there has been an almost continuous flow of aliyah, which brought in roughly 3,467,000 persons over a period of 120 years and created Israel's Jewish population of 5,094,200 persons at the end of 2002 – 76.8% of the total of 6,631,100. At the end of 2003 the total population reached 6,748,000, with the lowest increase of 117,000 persons (1.8%) in one year since 1990. In the year 2000 the population increase was 2.2%; in 2001, 2.2%; and in 2002, 1.9%. The reason for this decline was the emigration of olim (immigrants). This large movement may be divided into three distinct periods. The first (a) was during the last years of the Ottoman regime, when immigration totaled 55,000 to 70,000. The average in the years of the First Aliyah (1882–1904) was about 1,000 a year, rising in 1904–14, the period of the Second Aliyah, to about 3,000 a year. During 1882–1914, a little less than 3% of the enormous numbers of Jews who migrated overseas, mainly from Eastern Europe, went to Ereẓ Israel. The second was during the British Mandatory regime (1919–48), when aliyah totaled about 485,000, some 16,000 per year on the average. The peaks were in 1925 (34,000 – 285 immigrants per 1,000 of the country's Jewish population) and 1935 (66,000 – 206 per 1,000). During this period, aliyah constituted some 30% of the total Jewish overseas migration. The third period (c) was after the establishment of the State of Israel, when over 2,930,000 went to the new state between May 1948 and the end of 2002, or some 55,000 per year. Of these, some 687,000 immigrated   between 1948 and 1951, the peak being in 1949, when about 240,000 arrived – about 266 per 1,000 of the Jewish population. A second great wave of immigration took place in the 1990s, mostly from the former Soviet Union (see below). There were considerable fluctuations. Immigration tended, on the whole, to increase from period (a) to and to (c), but within each period the curve of immigration was characterized by a wave-like rise and fall. (For figures see israel , State of: Aliyah and Absorption.) Waves in immigration were largely due to the interplay of a variety of changing political, economic, social, and ideological factors in the Land of Israel and the various countries of the Diaspora: the influence of Zionism, religion, ḥalutziyyut, socialist ideas, and the attraction of the independent Jewish state; the work of Jewish institutions in propagating ideologies, organizing aliyah, and helping the newcomers; policies regarding emigration in general, and Jewish emigration in particular, in various countries; changing immigration and absorption policies, as well as political and economic conditions, in the land of Israel and in other countries absorbing Jewish immigration. In the later Ottoman period, immigrants came from many countries, but in the Mandatory period and since the achievement of independence, practically every Jewish community in the Diaspora was represented. While some attraction to Israel seemed to be generally felt throughout the Jewish world, the intensity of participation, as measured by the yearly rates of immigration to Israel per 1,000 Jewish inhabitants of each country, varied considerably between different parts of the world and for each region in different periods. The table on the following page shows the immigration from each of the main Diaspora regions in the various periods between 1919 and 2003, as well as the percentage of immigration from the two regions (Asia and Africa; Europe and America) in each period. From the end of 1989 a large wave of immigration began arriving in Israel (mostly from the states of the former U.S.S.R.). Within three years (1990–1992) some 450,000 immigrants entered Israel. (In the wave which arrived in Israel after the establishment of the state in 1948 and which was designated a "mass immigration," 690,000 arrived within three and a half years.) They constituted some 10% of the Jewish population. This mass immigration came after a decade of low-level immigration in which 15,000 immigrants on the average arrived each year. As stated, this large wave – 1990 – 185,000; 1991 – 148,000; 1992 – 65,000; 1995–1996 – 119,000; 1997–1998 – 102,000; 2002 – 19,300 – came mostly from the various regions of the U.S.S.R. By comparison, in the 1970s the total number of immigrants arriving from Russia was 155,000. The second large group came from Ethiopia, from where some 27,000 arrived in 1990–1992 (of whom 15,000 arrived in a special operation, "Operation Solomon," within one day). In the 1980s some 15,000 arrived from Ethiopia; 46,800 immigrated since 1990. Smaller groups of immigrants arrived from various countries in America (U.S., Argentina, and some other Latin American countries) and Western European countries. The immigrants of the 1990–92 wave reflected the characteristics of the Russian immigrants. The proportion of females was 53% (similar to that found within the 1970 immigrants). The percent of females was much higher in the older age groups where it reached 61% (in the ages 65 and over). The age structure of the 1990–92 immigration was characterized by a low percentage of children and a relatively high percent of older persons in comparison to the age structure of the Jewish population in Israel, and even compared to the 1980 immigration. The immigration of 1990–92 included a high percent of those with high-level education (e.g., those with 13 years of schooling or more comprised 50% of those 15 and above, and those with 16 years and over 11%). A very high proportion of those in academic, scientific, professional and technical fields was found in this immigration. The number of physicians and dentists who arrived in the 1990–92 immigration was 12,000 and the number of engineers and architects was 45,000. Like immigration, emigration (yeridah) also displays wavelike fluctuations, which are, to a certain extent, connected with waves of aliyah, since the former is, to a certain degree, due to a backflow of the latter. However, since the 1960s emigration of veteran foreign-born and Israel-born adults has also been noticeable, probably largely due to economic factors. Bachi has estimated in a very rough way that at the end of 1975 some 11% of the Israeli population (including both emigrants and their descendants) resided abroad. This Israeli Diaspora may have been as large as some 370,000, mostly in Northern America and Western and Central Europe. A rough estimate at the beginning of the 21st century put the figure at over half a million. The Growth of the Jewish Population The most immediate demographic effects of aliyah were as follows. Between 1882 and 1914, the Jewish population increased by 61,000 (from 24,000 to 85,000). Immigration roughly accounted for this increase, while emigration and natural increase probably canceled each other out. Immigration failed to bring a sizable proportion of the Jewish people to the country and did not succeed in reducing the absolute size of the Diaspora (in 1914 only 0.6% of world Jewry lived in the land of Israel). It did succeed, however, in creating a nucleus of population that was able to survive the expulsions and emigrations, diseases, and famine brought on by World War I (during which the Jewish population was reduced to some 57,000) and served as a basis for further development. During the Mandatory period, the Jewish population of Palestine increased by about 566,000 (from 84,000 according to the census of 1922 to 650,000 on the eve of independence), 71% of the growth being due to immigration and 29% to natural increase. At the end of the period, the Jews of Palestine constituted 5.7% of world Jewry. During the period between May 1948 and the end of 1970, the Jewish population increased by 1,910,000, of which about   62% was due to the immigration balance and 38% to natural increase. At the end of 1970, the Jewish population of Israel (2,559,000 persons) constituted over 18% of world Jewry. In the period 1971–1978, the population of Israel as a whole continued to grow, though at an average yearly rate of 27 per 1,000, which was less than in 1961–1970 (35 per 1,000) and much smaller than in 1948–1960 (81 per 1,000). The lower rate of growth was due mainly to a relatively low level of Jewish immigration and decline of the natural increase. In 2002 the Israeli population numbered nearly 6.7 million persons. Within the period 1983–2002, it increased by 2.5 million (by 38%; an average annual growth rate of 2%). The increase of the population was very uneven. While the first seven years of the period (1983–1989) witnessed a slow growth (1.7% per year), the growth rate in the next three years (1990–1992) was much larger (4.4% per year, adding 200,000 each year) and between 1993 and 2002 was 2.7% per year. These large differences in growth relate to a Jewish population, which increased in 1983–2002 by 1,681,700 (an average of 5.5% per year) and reached 5,094,200 by the end of 2002. In the period 1983–89 the annual growth attained 1.5%, while in the period 1990–2002 the average growth rate reached 2.4%. The large differential growth is attributable wholly to the mass immigration which began arriving in Israel at the end of 1989 and brought within three years 450,000 immigrants, so that natural increase (the difference between the number of births and deaths) which contributed 92% of the Jewish population increase in the period 1983–89, contributed only 27% in this later period. During the period between May 1948 and the end of 2002, the Jewish population increased by 4,335,500, of which about 62% was due to the immigration balance and 38% to natural increase. At the end of 2002, the Jewish population of Israel (5,094,200 persons) constituted over 38% of world Jewry and was exceeded in size only by the Jewish community of the United States (see demography ). The population increase varied considerably from year to year, largely due to the fluctuations in aliyah. Composition According to Place of Birth Mainly as a consequence of changing sizes and origins of immigration and of differentials of fertility (which will be discussed below), the composition of the Jewish population according to country of birth has changed considerably in the course of time, but has always been extremely heterogeneous. The following are some of the main aspects of this phenomenon: PROPORTION OF FOREIGN-BORN With increasing rates of immigration, the proportion of persons born abroad increased from approximately 42% of the Jewish population in 1916–18 to 58% in 1931 and 64.6% in 1948, and decreased to 37.2% at the end of 2002. The percentage of foreign-born was higher in the adult age-groups, which is exceptional, even in countries of large immigration. If conditions in Israel had been different and a considerable part of the immigrant population had not identified itself strongly with the new country, such high percent ages of foreign-born citizens could have produced a very unstable society, since the majority of the people acquired their cultural background in foreign countries. Jewish Immigrants to Israel by Continent of Birth, 18822004 Source: Statistical Abstract of Israel, Central Bureau of Statistics, Jerusalem. Jewish Immigrants to Israel by Continent of Birth, 1882–2004 Source: Statistical Abstract of Israel, Central Bureau of Statistics, Jerusalem.   3"> Absolute Numbers 3"> Percentages Period Asia and Africa Europe and America Total1 Asia and Africa Europe and America Total 7"> Source: Statistical Abstract of Israel, Central Bureau of Statistics, Jerusalem. 7"> 1 Including unknown origin. 7"> 2 Palestine. 7"> 3 Including potential immigrants. 7"> 4 Including Oceania. 1882–19192 65,000 1919– 44,809 385,066 452,158 10.4 89.6 100.0 May 14, 19482 May 15, 696,670 577,605 1,294,026 54.7 45.3 100.0 1948–1969 May 15, 330,456 334,971 684,201 49.7 50.3 100.0 1948–1951 1952–1954 39,978 11,187 51,193 78.1 21.9 100.0 1955–1957 110,714 49,630 160,961 69.1 30.9 100.0 1958–1960 25,926 46,460 72,393 35.8 64.2 100.0 1961–1964 133,561 86,748 220,323 60.6 39.4 100.0 1965–1969 56,035 48,609 104,955 53.5 46.5 100.0 1972–19793 38,729 228,4594 267,188 14.4 85.6 100.0 1980–19893 43,097 110,2674 153,364 28.1 71.9 100.0 1990–2001 108,236 951,3484 1,060,091 10.2 89.8 100.0 2002–2004 19,345 58,3804 77,733 29.5 70.5 100.0 GROWING DIVERSIFICATION OF FOREIGN-BORN Whereas in the last years of the Ottoman period and the first part of the Mandatory period three-quarters of the foreign-born were East European (Russians, Poles, Latvians, Lithuanians, and Romanians, who constituted the backbone of the Zionist enterprise), their proportion in the foreign-born population rapidly decreased, falling to 26.9% by 2002. Central Europeans (Germans, Austrians, Czechs, Slovakians, Hungarians), once a small minority, reached the considerable proportion of 18.4% in the period of Nazi persecution, but they decreased to less than 2.9% by 2002. All Europeans taken together dropped from 76.4% of the foreign-born in 1948 to 24% in 2002. On the other hand, those from Asian countries increased from 12.5% in 1948 to 13.3% in 2002, while the African communities grew from 2.6% to 16.1% (of which four-fifths came from Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia) in the same period. These changes have been accompanied by a deep change in stratification according to ages. While people of European origin still constitute the majority of the middle aged and the old, the largest group in the younger, productive ages is of Asian and African origin. Among the children, the native-born ("sabras") constitute the majority. Considering together those born abroad and their children, in 2002 Jews of Asian and African origin constituted 29.5% of those whose origin was known, while people of European and American origins   constituted 41.1%. The increasing variety in the composition of the Jewish population confronted the State of Israel with very complex problems arising from the need to give everyone a common cultural, political, and linguistic basis and from the lower educational standards of the Asian and African newcomers. Distribution of Immigration and Population by Sex and Age Unlike most international migration processes due mainly to economic factors, modern aliyah was in general well balanced in regard to sex. Only in very difficult periods, as for instance in the first waves of 1919–23 and among the "illegal" immigrants in the 1940s, did the proportion of men considerably outweigh that of women. Accordingly, the distribution of population by sexes was also generally well balanced and subject only to minor fluctuations: the percentage of males at different times was the following: 1922 – 52.3; 1931 – 50.5; 1936 – 50.0; 1940 – 50.5; 1948 – 51.7; 1961 – 50.7; 1969 – 50.3; 2002 – 51.2. The age structure of the aliyah in the Mandatory period differed from that of the period of independence. Due to selection, the former was extremely abnormal in age distribution; it included a very high proportion of young people and was strongly at variance with the age distribution of the communities of origin (the Jewish population in Europe was largely characterized by a high proportion of old people). In the first phases of the Mandatory period, the Jewish population of Palestine reflected these characteristics and presented a typically strong swelling of the age pyramid in the very young age groups. The high proportion of people of young working age was presumably a considerable asset for the economic, social, and political development of the Zionist enterprise. In the long run, however, the situation was considerably changed by the aging of the young immigrants; the low fertility of the Europeans, then constituting the large majority of the population, which set in motion a general process of aging, and the inadequate influence of the smaller, new immigration waves in rejuvenating the population. The population therefore became more regular in its distribution and lost much of its young character. During the period of statehood, a considerable part of the aliyah was nonselective and reflected the structure of the communities of origin. This aliyah had a much higher proportion of children, a somewhat higher proportion of old people, and a higher proportion of those in dependent ages to those in working ages. Unlike the immigration of the Mandatory period, it contributed to a leveling-out of the age distribution of the population. It widened the base of the age pyramid and the high fertility of the Oriental immigrants checked or offset the aging of the population, particularly that of the population in the working ages. As a consequence of all these processes, the Jewish population of Israel is today more regular in its age distributions than in the past; it is younger than many Western populations, but older than Eastern populations. Due to fluctuation in the number of births in the last decade, the percentage aged 15–19 is higher than the 0–14 age bracket and a much higher percentage than in the following brackets. At the end of 2002, 1.88 million (28.4% of the population of Israel) were children under 15; 61.8% were in the ages 15–64; and 9.9% were older people (aged 65 and over). The age distribution in 2002 differs from that of a decade earlier in a decrease in the proportion of children, and a small increase in the proportion of older people. These changes were influenced by the age structure of immigrants who arrived in 1990–1992, who had a lower fertility and so a lower proportion of children and a higher proportion of older persons. The proportion of those 65 and over in the veteran population, had the immigration not taken place, would not have changed to any significant degree up to 2010. The process of aging which the Jewish Israeli population underwent brought the proportion of those 65 and over from 4.0% in 1948 to 7.2% in 1970, 9.7% in 1980, 10.5% in 1990, and 9.9% in 1992. Within this older group the proportion of 75 and over, from among those 65+, was 25% in 1970 and 32% in 1980, 41% in 1992, and 45.7% in 2002. Considerable differences in the age structure of the Jewish and Arab communities persist; to a large extent as a result of fertility differentials. The proportion of children was 41% among Arabs compared to 25.4% among Jews in 2002; the proportion of those aged 65 and over was 3.9% in the Arab population compared to 11.4% among Jews. The decrease in the proportion of children found in both the Jewish and Arab population was counterbalanced by the increase in the proportion of those aged 25 and over (mostly in the age group 25–44). Large differences in the age structure were found between various localities in the country. Tel Aviv-Jaffa and Haifa cities have an older population (16–17% of the population were aged 65 and older), while Jerusalem had a younger population (7.6% aged 65 and over). A similar rate is found in smaller towns and in rural areas. This is a result of the structure of the population in various localities. In localities with a larger proportion of those originating in Asia and Africa, or a large proportion of Orthodox population, the age structure was younger (a larger proportion of children and a smaller proportion of older people). Marriages, Births, Deaths, and Natural Increase The study of the vital statistics of Israel's Jewish population is of interest from many points of view. While it has been established and expanded mainly by immigration, its future development, in the long run, will largely depend on the reproductive capacity of the immigrants and their descendants. Since Israel is a new and small country, the enlarging of its population may be of importance in order to provide a sufficiently large and differentiated basis for its economy and social structure. The demographic situation of the Jews of Israel may be significant in the light of the demography of world Jewry, which emerged from the Holocaust extremely reduced in numbers, and the fact that demographic trends in considerable   parts of the Diaspora, such as aging of the population, low fertility rates, and losses due to intermarriage, are producing further population decreases. From a scientific point of view, the analysis of the evolution of marriage habits, fertility, mortality, and health standards among the various groups of the Jewish population in Israel is of interest within the larger framework of modern demographic evolution in general and that of the various branches of world Jewry in particular. Demographic patterns in the Diaspora differ considerably in relation to general environment, cultural development, degrees of religious conservatism, and assimilation of Jews into different social classes. In very broad terms, it appears that in many Asian and African communities the old Jewish customs of universal, early, and endogamous marriage, accompanied by high fertility, still tended to prevail until recently. Mortality rates had begun to fall considerably, creating a comparatively large reproductive force. On the other hand, European Jews, particularly in Central Europe, have in general had comparatively low marriage rates, rather high marriage ages, and generally increasing rates of exogamous marriage. Fertility has decreased (mainly among Central European Jews) to such an extent as in many cases to be well below replacement level, despite the generally favorable age-specific mortality rates among Jews as compared with those of non-Jews in the same countries (see demography ). The following are some of the main features of the vital statistics of the Jewish population of Israel. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE Marriage in Israel is almost exclusively endogamous within the Jewish community. Marriage is almost universal in all groups of the Jewish population: the percentage of single persons at the end of the fertility period is generally small. Only recently has there been some tendency toward increased rates of celibacy among Jewish women. In addition, the generally favorable age structure and the influx of unmarried immigrants – who often appear to postpone marriage before immigration and are afterward eager to marry – have contributed to generally high crude marriage rates among the Jewish population in Israeli during periods of heavy immigration. Average age of Israel brides at first marriage was 25.9 in 2001, which is low by European standards, but higher than that found in Oriental countries. The propensity to marry has continued to be comparatively strong in three population groups – the Jews, the Moslems and the Druze – and weak among the Christians. In 2000 the proportion of Jewish women reaching the age of 45–49 without having been married was 6%. Age at marriage tends to become more uniform than in the past among the various groups of the population of Israel. Early marriages which were frequent in the past among the Moslems, the Druze and among Jews of certain Asian and African origins have become by far less frequent. Among Jews, preference in marriage between people of same origin still constitutes a rather general feature, but this tendency is clearly decreasing in the course of time; it decreases among people born abroad, with length of stay in Israel, and it is weaker among people born in Israel than among foreign born. Data shows that homogamy (tendency to marry people of equal origin) was comparatively higher – within each class of length of stay – among people born in certain Asian and African countries, such as Yemen, India, Iraq, Iran, Morocco and Libya, where the Jewish communities were on the whole more traditional and less "modernized." Among those of European origin, homogamy by country was generally much lower. However, those Jews of Romanian, Polish, Bulgarian, and Greek origin had a higher homogamy rate than those from Central Europe and other Western countries. Among Jews marrying a partner originating from a country different from their own, there is still some tendency to prefer a marriage mate originating from a country where customs, culture or language are equal or similar to those of one's own country. Among such areas of marriage preference the following may be quoted: Eastern European countries; Central Europe; former French North Africa; Latin America; Anglo-Saxon countries; and the Sephardi community. The frequency of marriages between people of African or Asian origin and those of European origin is gradually increasing. DIVORCES Divorce rates, which had decreased in the 1950s and 1960s, have shown a tendency to increase since then. On the basis of the 1972 census it has been calculated that the average yearly number of divorces per 1000 married persons was, among the Jews of Israel, about four and in 2001 about nine. These rates are higher than those prevalent in many other countries, but lower than those found in the U.S.A., and among various Scandinavian, Central European, Balkan, and Muslim populations. Probability of divorce reaches a maximum two years after marriage and then declines slowly. The propensity to divorce decreases with increasing number of children. However, the percentage of divorced couples with children has increased in the course of time. Divorced people have a high tendency to remarry. Actually, divorced men marry more than bachelors or widowers of same age and divorcées marry more than spinsters and widows. This feature is not peculiar to Israel and is sometimes interpreted as showing that divorce is generally less a repudiation of marriage as such, than an expression of dissatisfaction with a particular marriage partner. This may be connected also with the likely fact that some divorces are obtained to marry somebody else. However, divorced people have also a particularly high propensity to divorce again. FERTILITY Patterns of fertility differ among various Jewish population groups far more than marriage patterns. Fertility may be indicated by the average number of children born per woman in the entire reproductive period – about 15–49 (it must be remembered that an average of more than two children per couple is necessary for ensuring adequate reproduction, as some children die before reaching maturity). From   the scanty statistical material available it appears that at the beginning of the 20th century, Jews in the Land of Israel still had a rather high fertility. However, in the 1920s and 1930s fertility fell rapidly (1927–29, 3.57 children per woman; 1935–38, 2.54; 1939–42, 2.33. This decrease was due to the rapid spread of birth control (by contraception and abortion), mainly among the Jews of European origin, who constituted the great majority of the Jewish population. Limitation of births was particularly strong in periods of political or economic difficulties, like that of the Arab riots (1936–39) and the beginning of World War II. In the late 1940s there was a "baby boom" among European Jews in Palestine, comparable with that which developed at the time in many Western countries; many of the births may be considered as "delayed" from previous bad times. Total Fertility Rates (average number of children per woman) Source: Statistical Abstract of Israel 1995, No. 46; 2005, No. 56. Source: Statistical Abstract of Israel 1995, No. 46; 2005, No. 56.") Total Fertility Rates (average number of children per woman) Source: Statistical Abstract of Israel 1995, No. 46; 2005, No. 56.   3"> Jews born in 3"> Non-Jewish population Years Israel Asia-Africa Europe-America Total Muslims Christians Druze 8"> Data for the five year periods are arithmetical means. 1955–59 2.79 5.40 2.53 3.56 8.17 4.56 7.21 1960–64 2.73 4.79 2.38 3.39 9.23 4.68 7.49 1965–69 2.83 4.35 2.59 3.36 9.22 4.26 7.30 1970–74 3.05 3.92 2.83 3.28 8.47 3.65 7.25 1975–79 2.91 3.40 2.80 3.00 7.25 3.12 6.93 1980–84 2.82 3.09 2.76 2.80 5.54 2.41 5.40 1985–89 2.82 3.14 2.66 2.79 4.70 2.49 4.19 1990–94 2.72 3.33 2.14 2.62 4.67 2.18 3.77 1995–99 2,93 2.62 4.67 2.56 3.24 2004 2.90 2.71 4.36 2.13 2.66 In 1949–50 the fertility of European Jews reached the top level of 3.24. Later, however, it declined again (1960–63, 2.4; 1965, 2.6; 2002, probably in connection with the recession, 2.64). In 1968–69, after the end of the recession, it somewhat increased, possibly also due to a change in public opinion in regard to the fertility problem. However, in general, the fertility of European Jews in Israel was not much higher than the minimum reproduction level. Fertility differentials were not large among European Jews. The main factors of differentiation were religious outlook (among religious women, particularly those observing the injunction of the mikveh or ritual bath, there was considerably higher fertility and less contraception and induced abortion than among others); work (working women had less children than others); place of residence (women in Tel Aviv and Haifa had lower fertility than in other towns), the highest fertility being found in Jerusalem, with its large proportion of religious people, and the kibbutzim; education (the higher the education, the lower the fertility); length of stay (the veteran settlers and the second generation have a somewhat higher fertility than new immigrants). Jews of Afro-Asian origin somewhat reduced their fertility during the Mandatory period, mainly in places and among strata having more contact with European Jews. However, their average fertility remained higher than that of European Jews. Mass immigration brought many large families not accustomed to birth control, which considerably increased the fertility of Asian-African Jews. However, in the course of time, birth control spread among them, especially among the younger generation. Differences in fertility in this group were very large; as among the Europeans, religious outlook and work played some part, but the main differentiations are related to length of stay in the country, education, and place of residence. In the higher educational levels and in certain places, such as the kibbutzim, the differences by origin almost disappeared, while women living in more secluded places, like the moshavim, had a very high fertility rate. On the whole, the fertility of people of Asian or African origin was still rather high, and due to their large proportion among women in the reproductive ages, the average fertility of Jews in Israel was considerably above reproduction level. However, the fertility of Jews of Asian-African origin continued to decrease in the period after the Six-Day War. This decrease was connected with spreading knowledge of, and the actual use of, contraceptive methods among this group of the population, as indicated above. This rapid evolution is accelerated by increasing levels of education, a larger proportion of working women, growing secularization and increasing contacts with other population groups. In consequence the fertility of Jews born in Asia and Africa is lower in Israel than it was in the countries of origin, and it is lower in Israel among those born in Asia and Africa than among those born in Israel from parents of Asian-African origin. Among those of European origin the opposite evolution has taken place. Fertility is higher in Israel than in the countries of origin and it is higher among Israelis born of European origin than among immigrants from Europe. The fertility of people of European origin (first and second generation) is still lower than that of those of Asian-African origin. However, in the late 1960s and early 1970s it tended to increase to some extent and to remain at a more sustained level than in previous periods. Among groups of European origin, the kibbutz population had a more considerable upsurge of its birth rate. Various demographic, political, psychological, economic and social explanations of the increase of fertility rates among people of European origin during the late 1960s and early 1970s may be proposed. In the late 1970s a tendency toward decline of fertility appeared again also among those of European origin. Among the non-Jewish population a growing tendency toward control of births and reduction of fertility is also noticeable. These tendencies are strong in the Christian population which is more urbanized and has a higher educational   level. They have started later and are less pronounced in the Moslem and Druze populations. Considerable changes have also occurred with regard to abortions. In Mandatory Palestine regulations concerning abortions were very rigid and heavy penalties were laid down both for the woman procuring her own miscarriage or for any person procuring it. Although these regulations remained theoretically in force in Israel, they were not applied in practice. Abortions were very largely performed, generally by physicians, but almost without any public control. In 1966 penalties against the woman were abolished, and those against persons procuring abortions were mitigated. However, growing uneasiness was felt with regard to the discrepancy between written law and actual practice, and in 1977 a law was passed declaring abortions performed outside hospitals to be unlawful and fixing norms for cases which can be permitted in public hospitals by special committees. Those norms permit abortions for social reasons. The practice of abortion seems to have been in the past widespread among European women, but to have then declined (probably with the wider spread of birth control) mainly among women of a higher educational level. Later, use of abortion increased among women of Asian-African origin, but also apparently declined. Abortion is practiced to a lesser extent among religious women than among non-religious. Legal abortions stood at 12.4% of live births in 2002 compared with a peak of 16.1 in 1984. In Table: Total Fertility Rates, fertility has been measured by using – in order to enable comparison – the same method employed in the initial section on fertility above. A total of 139,535 babies were born in Israel in 2002 (of whom 94,327 were Jewish). The last two decades saw a continuous decrease in the birth rate: from 24.6 births per 1,000 population in 1983 to 22.6 in 1988 and 21.2 in 2002. However, the rate in 2002 was still higher than that found in most developed countries (in 1989 the average birth rate for Europe was 12.9, for North America 15.0) but much lower than developing countries (the average in Africa – 45, Asia – 28). The number of children per woman (at the end of her fertility period = "total fertility") was estimated as 3.21 in 1983, falling to 3.06 in 1988 and 2.64 by 2002. This number reflects large differences in fertility of the various communities in Israel. The birth rate (per 1,000 population) was 19 for the Jewish population compared to 37 among the Muslim population. The "total fertility rate" was 2.64 for the Jewish population, 4.58 for the Muslim population, 2.77 for the Druze population, and 2.29 for the Christian population. The fertility of the Muslim population declined from 5.4 in 1983 to 4.53 in 1988, but later increased to 4.58 by 2002. In the Jewish population large differences in fertility still exist between the various communities. The number of children of an Asian-born mother was 40% higher than of a European-born mother (for an African-born mother higher by 66%). But differences among mothers born in Israel of various origins were much lower. A very distinct change in fertility for European-born mothers was noticed in the period from 1989 to 1992: a decline in total fertility from 2.6 to 2.05. This was caused by the very low fertility level of immigrants from the former Soviet Union who arrived in the large immigration wave of 1990–92 (total fertility for this group 1.5 children). The decrease in fertility occurred for mothers of practically all levels. MORTALITY Before World War II health conditions were favorably affected by the fact that most of the immigrants came from Europe, where the Jews, in general, had lower age-specific mortality rates than non-Jews in the same localities, and that candidates for aliyah were generally selected. On the other hand, the change in environment, the transition to harder work, and the presence of an Arab majority with a high mortality rate may have been adverse factors. Since World War II further adverse factors have been operative, i.e., the mass immigration of people who underwent persecution and suffered in the concentration camps and of unselected Oriental immigrants with low health standards. Large-scale medical services, voluntary health insurance for the majority of the population, an exceptionally high proportion of physicians in the population, preventive services, and supervision of most mothers and children have acted as very favorable factors throughout the Mandatory and statehood periods. On the whole, the double challenge of bringing European immigrants to a prevalently Oriental country (up to 1948) and bringing Oriental immigrants to a prevalently European country (after 1948) has been met with considerable success. Life expectancy has steadily increased – from 54 in 1926 to 77.4 for men and 81.6 for women in 2001, and mortality has decreased at all age levels, especially among children and young people. The infant mortality rate, which in 1924 was ranked in the middle of the world list, decreased at so rapid a pace that in 1947 it was lower than that of 89 countries and higher only than that of four and had reached the record low level of 29.2 per 1,000; with mass immigration, it rose again to 51.7 per 1,000 in 1949, but afterward began to drop again and stood at 5.6 per 1,000 births in 1995 and 4.7 in 1999 for Jews. This level was found in countries having the lowest infant mortality rate in the developed countries. The wide gulf between the mortality of children of Asian and African immigrants and that of children of European origin has been bridged to a considerable extent, and the life expectancies of these two main groups of population are now quite close. For Muslims the decrease in infant mortality was from 21.3 to 13.1. The total number of deaths from all causes was 35,348 in 1995 (i.e., 7.1 per 1,000 population). The major causes of death were similar to those found ten years earlier: heart conditions and cerebrovascular diseases were responsible for 40% of all deaths and cancers, 20%.   Intermarriage Between Groups of Different Origins The Central Bureau of Statistics of Israel publishes yearly data on marriages according to country of birth and length of stay in Israel of the bride and groom, and particularly detailed data on this point were collected in the censuses of 1989 and 1995. The figures show that the tendency to marry people of the same origin (endogamy) is still very considerable in Israel. However, endogamy differs from group to group: it is lower in smaller than in larger groups; it is lower among people having higher educational standards and in such places as kibbutzim, where the members are more integrated into the life of the community. The most relevant feature found is that endogamy decreases with the length of stay in Israel. Where both husband and wife are new immigrants, endogamy by place of birth is found to be very high, but it is generally low in marriages between veteran residents and practically vanishes among veterans belonging to smaller groups. This finding and the general decrease of endogamy in the course of time show that there is a clear tendency toward a systematic lowering of marriage barriers between different origin groups. About 70% of marriages are still between couples of the same continent of origin, not because of preference for mates from the same community but mainly because of preference for a given level of education and the availability of single people of different ages in different countries. Geographical Distribution of the Population One of the most well known characteristics of modern Israel is the "return to the soil" – the establishment of hundreds of villages and the creation of a rural population, which are almost unknown in the Diaspora. Nevertheless, the Jewish population has been largely urban. With increasing mechanization and efficiency in Jewish agriculture, the proportion of people living on the land has been decreasing (17.3% in 1959; 10.8% in 1969, and 8.8% in 2002). Moreover, the share of the rural population in moshavot and moshavim has tended to increase, while that in the kibbutzim has decreased. Due to industrial development in urban areas the two large conurbations of Tel Aviv and Haifa contained, respectively, 54.7% and 18.4% of the total Jewish population at the end of 2002. Great efforts have been made by the authorities to prevent the over-rapid development of these areas and the over-concentration of the population in the coastal strip. This has been done by policies designed to increase the rural population, particularly in border areas, and by establishing "development towns" (mainly in the southern and northern districts). Some of the main developments in the geographical distribution of the population are shown in the following three tables: Jewish Population in Israel by Type of Settlement; Population and Settlements in Israel by Size of Settlement; and Jewish Population of Israel by District and Sub-District, showing the proportion of Jewish population living in each subdistrict. Jewish Population in Israel by Type of Settlement, by percentage (19452003)") Jewish Population in Israel by Type of Settlement, by percentage (1945–2003)   1945 1948 1954 1961 1969 1983 1994 2003 9"> 1 Including immigrant transit centers. 9"> 2 Including collective moshavim. Urban Population 84.6 83.9 76.1 84.6 89.2 90.2 90.5 91.2 Towns 64.3 64.4 64.5 69.7 73.2 – Urban settlements 20.3 19.5 11.6 14.9 16.0 – Rural Population 15.4 16.1 23.9 15.4 10.8 9.8 9.5 8.8 Villages 3.2 3.5 4.0 4.5 1.7 – – – Moshavim 5.2 4.4 7.3 6.4 5.1 4.52 3.92 4.2 Kibbutzim 6.3 7.9 5.0 4.0 3.4 3.4 2.8 2.1 Other 0.7 0.3 7.61 0.5 0.6 1.9 2.8 2.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Population (in thousands) and Settlements in Israel by Size of Settlement (19532002) Source: Statistical Abstract of Israel, Central Bureau of Statistics, Jerusalem. and Settlements in Israel by Size of Settlement (19532002) Source: Statistical Abstract of Israel, Central Bureau of Statistics, Jerusalem.") Population (in thousands) and Settlements in Israel by Size of Settlement (1953–2002) Source: Statistical Abstract of Israel, Central Bureau of Statistics, Jerusalem.   2"> 1953 2"> 1969 2"> 2002 Size of Settlement Settlements Population Settlements Population Settlements Population 7"> Source: Statistical Abstract of Israel, Central Bureau of Statistics, Jerusalem. 5,000–9,999 20 139.9 21 148.6 49 341.2 10,000–19,999 9 135.7 23 306.4 40 562.2 20,000–49,999 10 269.5 16 506.0 45 1,375.5 50,000+ 3 651.5 10 1,441.1 9 647.2 100,000–199,999 — — — — 8 1,374.8 200,000+ — — — — 4 1,523.2 Living outside settlements — — — 3.9 — Other — — — — — — Bedouin tribes — 20.1 — 36.8 — n.a. Total 42 1,216.7 69 2,442.8 155 5,828.1 The distribution of the population is marked by the following characteristics. Within the extremely irregular boundaries of Israel (within the 1949 armistice demarcation lines), the population is highly concentrated in certain areas, such as the Coastal Plain, and there is a very low density in the southern areas, which are largely desert. However, in the course of time there has been some tendency to modify these characteristics. The actual distribution has become a little less concentrated than it was in 1948. Population dispersal has increased, and the center of gravity has shifted considerably to the south (toward the Tel Aviv conurbation and southern development towns and zones). These changes have largely been due to the policy of attracting new immigrants to the development zones on the periphery of the country by providing housing and labor facilities in those regions. This policy has had a particularly strong effect on new immigrants from Asia and Africa.   Jewish Population of Israel by District and Sub-District1 (19482003) Source: Statistical Abstract of Israel, Central Bureau of Statistics, Jerusalem. Source: Statistical Abstract of Israel, Central Bureau of Statistics, Jerusalem.") Jewish Population of Israel by District and Sub-District1 (1948–2003) Source: Statistical Abstract of Israel, Central Bureau of Statistics, Jerusalem.   6"> Population (thousands) 5"> Percentages District and Sub-District Nov. 8, 1948 May 22, 1961 Dec. 31, 1969 Dec. 31, 1994 Dec. 31, 2003 Nov. 8, 1948 May 22, 1961 Dec. 31, 1969 Dec. 31, 1994 Dec. 31, 2003 11"> Source: Statistical Abstract of Israel, Central Bureau of Statistics, Jerusalem. 11"> 1 According to the boundaries of the sub-districts in the years listed. 11"> 2 Including Israel residents in the Administered Territories. 11"> 3 Following the disengagement from Gaza in Aug. 2005, the approx. 8,000 Jewish residents of the Gaza region were dispersed elsewhere in Israel. Jerusalem district 84.2 187.7 237.6 473.2 560.5 12.0 9.7 9.5 10.7 10.9 Northern district 53.4 194.3 244.6 458.7 516.4 7.6 10.0 9.8 10.3 10.0 Safed sub-district 8.9 42.6 51.4 73.8 79.8 1.3 2.2 2.1 1.7 1.5 Kinneret sub-district 14.4 35.4 38.0 60.0 63.8 2.1 1.8 1.5 1.3 1.2 Jezreel sub-district 24.1 66.6 87.7 163.0 184.5 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.7 3.6 Acre sub-district 6.0 49.7 67.5 148.5 172.5 0.8 2.6 2.7 3.3 3.3 Golan sub-district 15.8 0.3 Haifa district 147.7 322.3 386.3 562.6 608.4 21.1 16.7 15.5 12.7 11.8 Haifa sub-district 116.4 257.6 311.9 430.2 438.8 16.6 13.3 12.5 9.7 8.5 Ḥaderah sub-district 31.3 64.7 74.4 132.4 169.6 4.5 3.4 3.0 3.0 3.3 Central district 106.2 380.1 48.24 1,071.8 1,391.8 15.2 19.7 19.4 24.1 26.9 Sharon sub-district 26.5 85.1 106.1 209.8 261.9 3.8 4.4 4.3 4.7 5.1 Petaḥ Tikvah sub-district 45.9 131.8 171.5 392.2 492.8 6.6 6.8 6.9 8.8 9.5 Ramleh sub-district 1.8 63.9 74.7 133.9 212.2 0.2 3.3 3.0 3.0 4.1 Reḥovot sub-district 32.0 99.3 130.0 335.9 425.0 4.6 5.2 5.2 7.6 8.2 Tel Aviv district 302.1 692.6 852.5 1,115.4 1,095.4 43.2 35.9 34.1 25.1 21.2 Southern district 6.0 155.3 292.5 632.6 766.6 0.9 8.0 11.7 14.2 14.8 Ashkelon sub-district 4.8 76.4 139.2 313.2 399.7 0.7 3.9 5.6 7.1 7.7 Beersheba sub-district 1.2 78.9 153.3 319.4 366.9 0.2 4.1 6.1 7.2 7.1 Judea, Samaria, and Gaza3 226.3 4.4 Not known 17.1 Total 716.7 1,932.3 2,496.42 4,441.1 5,165.4 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 These developments have been strengthened by the fact that there are more of the more prolific elements in the peripheral zones, while a higher proportion of the less fertile sections of the population and the older age groups is to be found in the central areas. Natural increase is therefore higher in peripheral zones and lower in the center, which increases population dispersal. These developments are offset, to some extent, by the effects of internal migration, as recent immigrants move mainly from the periphery to the center. Since the settlement of new immigrants in development areas has been the main factor in population dispersal, the latter has increased more in the periods of considerable immigration. As new immigrants in the more peripheral areas have been largely of African and Asian origin, there has been a certain tendency toward regionalization. The immigrants of European origin, especially the veterans, are more concentrated in the large conurbations and the older settlements of the Coastal Plain, the Jezreel Valley, etc., while there is a higher proportion of people of African-Asian origin in the southern and northern regions. This regionalization explains the peculiar distribution of the population according to social, economic, and cultural characteristics (such as concentration of veteran immigrants in the central part of the country and dispersion of more recently arrived persons over more peripheral regions), higher educational standards and better economic conditions along the Mediterranean coast, and so on. (Roberto Bachi / Elisha Efrat (2nd ed.) The Communities of Israel In 2002, Jews constituted 76.8% of the total Israeli population. Most of the others were Arabs and Druze. These were divided by religion as follows: Muslims – 15.5% of the total Israeli population, Christians – 2.1%, and Druze and others, 5.6%. The percent of the Jewish population declined from 84% in 1980 to 81.5% in 1989 (owing mostly to the large differences in the rate of natural increase of Jews and Arabs). The large immigration from Russia in 1989–1991 caused the proportion of Jews to increase to a smaller extent to 81.9% by the end of 1991.   \<!   \> \!jews in israel born abroad according to native countries and periods of immigration Jews in Israel Born Abroad According to Native Countries and Periods of Immigration   Countries Until 1918 1918–38 1939–47 1948 and unknown date Total no. of immigrants Yemen and Aden 1,800 8,510 5,676 316 16,302 Syria and Lebanon 459 4,243 5,850 237 10,789 Turkey 399 4,897 4,042 1,214 10,552 Iraq 470 5,272 2,983 277 9,002 Iran 563 2,833 423 97 3,916 The rest of Asia 38 1,451 645 717 2,851 Egypt 152 2,061 2,165 251 4,629 Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria 468 506 534 3,823 5,331 Libya 7 297 439 507 1,250 Asia and North Africa 4,356 30,070 22,757 7,439 64,622 Rest of Africa excluding South Africa 10 170 164 67 411 Soviet Asia 428 3,035 378 261 4,092 Europe, America, South Africa, and Oceania 7,478 211,424 96,334 76,347 391,783 Unknown 56 576 362 665 1,695 Total 12,328 245,265 119,995 84,979 462,567 THE VARIOUS JEWISH COMMUNITIES The large immigration which arrived in 1989–1991 brought some important changes in the size of the various communities of Israel. The proportion of the "Israeli-born" population, which increased continuously in the previous decades and reached 64% of the total Jewish population in 1989, declined to 60.5% in 1991 (37% of this group were second generation Israeli-born, i.e., born to fathers who were born in Israel). The Israeli-born population was composed of 55% young persons (less than 20 years old), while only less than 1% were aged 65 and over. The immigration of 1989–91 – which brought mostly immigrants from the former Soviet Russia – increased the proportion of those born in Europe, after a long–term reduction in their proportion. The proportion of those born in Europe and America among the total population decreased from 25% in 1981 to 20% in 1989, but by the beginning of 1992 the proportion returned to 25%. The Asian and African communities born abroad declined continuously from 20% of the total population in 1981 to 16% in 1989 and 15% in 1992. Use of Languages and Literacy From statistical data on the use of languages in Israel, collected at the population censuses in 1916–18, 1948, and 1961 and in various sample surveys, two dominant features of the linguistic situation in Israel are obvious: the amazing variety of languages brought by the immigrants from the countries of the Diaspora; and the important role played by the Hebrew language. The revival of Hebrew began at the end of the 19th century, when the majority of immigrants still spoke Yiddish, while the minority generally spoke Ladino or Arabic. At the end of the Ottoman period, Hebrew had succeeded in winning over some 34,000 (40% of the total Jewish population), mainly among the younger generation in "modern" localities (e.g., the new settlements and Tel Aviv). At the close of the Mandatory period, almost all those born in the country were Hebrew speakers, and those born abroad who had arrived before the age of 20 were found to use Hebrew almost to the same extent. At higher ages, it was found that the adoption of Hebrew diminished in speed and intensity in proportion to the age of the immigrants upon arrival. By 1948, 511,000 persons, 75% of the total, used Hebrew as their only or principal language. After the establishment of the State of Israel, the percentage of newcomers who knew Hebrew before arrival was far lower than that of pre-state immigrants, who were largely preselected and ideologically motivated. This decreased the proportion of Hebrew speakers in the period of mass immigration. Subsequently, however, the use of Hebrew again largely increased. The following table shows the changes in numbers and proportions of Hebrew speakers in the course of time. In 1966 they constituted some 70% of adults and there is no doubt that they were the overwhelming majority among the children. Persons Speaking Hebrew as Only or First Language Among the Jewish Population (Israel), 191466, 191466") Persons Speaking Hebrew as Only or First Language Among the Jewish Population (Israel), 1914–66   Age 12 and over Total Age 2 and over Age 2–14 Age 15 and over 5"> Rates per 100 of the Jewish population. 5"> 1 Palestine. 5"> 2 Aged one year and over (estimate). 5"> 3 Excluding Jerusalem. 5"> 4 Aged 2–13. 5"> 5 Aged 14 and over. 19141 334,0002 40.02,3 53.72,3 25.62,3 1948 511,000 75.1 93.4 69.5 1950 679,000 60.0 80.3 52.0 1954 861,000 60.9 83.94 52.85 1956 — — — 58.45 1961 1,391,400 75.3 92.8 67.4 1966 — — — 69.35 Before statehood, the Jewish population was characterized by the low proportion of illiterates. This was due to the high educational level of the immigrants, who were largely of European origin, and to the fact that most of the Jewish population saw to the education of their children, although it was not compulsory at the time. Only among women in the higher age groups was the proportion of illiterates considerable. With mass immigration from Asia and Africa, the proportion of illiterates increased considerably, mainly in the higher age groups and especially among women. Due to the efforts made by the State of Israel in the educational   field, the situation has improved in the course of time. The following table shows the classification of the Jewish population by number of years of schooling according to continent of birth, sex, age, and period of immigration. The higher standards of those born in Israel, Europe, and America, as compared with those of people born in Asia and Africa, are immediately seen. Percentages of Israel Population Aged 15 and Above, by Population Group, Number of Years of Schooling, Sex, Age, and Continent of Birth, 19612004 Source: Statistical Abstract of Israel, Central Bureau of Statistics, Jerusalem. Percentages of Israel Population Aged 15 and Above, by Population Group, Number of Years of Schooling, Sex, Age, and Continent of Birth, 1961–2004 Source: Statistical Abstract of Israel, Central Bureau of Statistics, Jerusalem.   9"> Number of Years of Schooling 0 1–4 5–8 9–10 11–12 13–15 16+ Median 9"> Source: Statistical Abstract of Israel, Central Bureau of Statistics, Jerusalem. 9"> Jewish Population 2004 Total 2.4 1.1 7.1 9.8 36.8 23.3 19.5 12.6 Sex Males 1.5 1 6.9 10.5 37.6 22.5 20 12.6 Females 3.3 1.2 7.3 9.1 36 24.1 19 12.6 Age 15–17 2.2 43.7 53.5 11.2 18–24 0.2 0.2 1.1 3.4 63.9 27.6 3.6 12.4 25–34 0.5 0.3 1.8 3.9 33.2 30.7 29.6 14 35–44 0.8 0.2 2.5 7.4 36.9 25.2 27.1 13.3 45–54 1.1 0.5 7 9.6 31.7 24.5 25.5 13 55–64 3.3 1.4 13 10.1 25.7 22.5 24 12.7 65+ 10.6 5 22.5 11.4 20.5 16.7 13.2 11 County or continent of birth Israel 0.4 2.9 8.4 44.8 23.6 19.8 12.7 Asia and Arica 12.3 12.5 12.7 39.2 14.7 8.6 11.6 Europe and America 1.3 5.2 11.6 29.2 29.2 23.5 13.3 9"> Jewish Population 1961–1994 1961 12.6 7.5 35.4 34.6 6.3 3.6 8.4 1970 9.3 6.3 31.7 39.7 8.1 4.9 9.3 1975 7.6 4.3 25.5 18.8 26.1 10.7 7.0 10.3 1985 5.0 3.1 17.3 16.6 33.6 14.2 10.2 11.5 1994 3.4 2.0 10.8 12.6 37.3 19.3 14.6 12.1 9"> Non-Jewish Population 1961–2004 1961 49.5 13.9 27.5 7.6 1.5 1.2 1970 36.1 13.7 35.1 13.0 1.7 (0.4) 5.0 1975 22.9 12.9 38.0 12.6 9.1 3.1 1.4 6.5 1985 13.4 7.7 32.0 19.3 19.2 5.9 2.5 8.6 2004 6.4 4.4 19.0 18.7 32.9 10.4 8.0 11.1 The Regional Distribution of the Population In 2002, the distribution of the population of Israel by the various regions of the country was very similar to that of a decade earlier, although some differences can be traced, brought about mostly by the dispersion of the large wave of immigration that arrived from the end of 1989 onwards. At the beginning of 2002, 70% of the population resided in the various sub-districts along the coastline of Israel. (These include the sub-districts of Acre in the north through Haifa District, Central and Tel Aviv Districts, and down to Ashkelon sub-district in the south.) This is similar to the proportion in 1983. Some small increase is found in the part of the population living in the peripheral area in the North and the South and the population living in Judea and Samaria and the Gaza Regions on the other side, but the population of the Tel Aviv and Haifa Districts grew at a slower rate than other districts. (Tel Aviv District population increased in the period 1983 to 2002 by 15.8%, Haifa by 45.8%, while other areas grew by 27 to 30 percent.) The large immigration which arrived from 1989 did reside to a larger extent in the Haifa and the Northern Districts, and to a smaller extent in the Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, and the Central Districts, compared to the veteran part of the Jewish population in these regions. Thirty-three percent of the immigrants (of the 1990–91 wave) resided in Haifa and Northern Districts compared to 25% of the Jewish population. The percent of immigrants entering the Tel Aviv and Central Districts was 46% (compared to 51% of the population). These movements continued the trend of decrease in the part of the Jewish population of the Tel Aviv District (in 2002, 21.5% of the population compared to 30% in 1983 and 43% in 1948). Data on internal migration of these new immigrants show that the Northern, Southern, and Central Districts did gain on balance from their movement. As the regional distribution of the Arab population did not change to an important extent, the part of the Jewish population in the Northern District was 50.3% in 1992 compared to 48.4% in 2002. The population of Israel is an urban population. Only 8.4% live in the small localities of less than 2,000 persons while 43.7% (50% of the Jewish population) reside in 13 localities of 100,000 persons or more. This is very similar to the distribution a decade ago. The three large cities (Jerusalem, Tel Aviv-Jaffa, and Haifa) continued the decline in their proportion of the population, while the population of towns of 100–200,000 inhabitants increased. These localities are Holon – population 165.8 thousand; Petaḥ Tikvah – 172.6; Bat Yam – 133.9; Rishon LeZiyyon – 211.6; Netanyah – 164.8; Be'ersheva – 181.5; Ramat Gan – 122.6; Bene Berak – 138.9. The largest city of Israel was Jerusalem with 680,000 at the end of 2002 (of whom 459,000 were Jews), followed by Tel Aviv-Jaffa with 360,000, and Haifa with 270,800. If the population of the whole conurbation of Tel Aviv is added a total is reached of 1.5 to 1.8 million, depending on how the boundaries of the metropolitan area are defined. The population of the Haifa conurbation is 971,000. Within the rural area, the population of the moshavim and the kibbutzim grew at a slower rate than did the total Jewish population, so that the percent of the population residing in moshavim declined within a decade from 4.5% to 4.1% and that of the kibbutzim from 3.5% to 2.1%.   -Human Resources In 2002 the labor force of Israel (i.e., those employed and those unemployed seeking work) numbered about 2.5 million. In the decade from 1982 to 1992, the labor force grew by some 480,000 (i.e., by more than a third or 3.0% per annum). Parallel to the population change, the labor force grew at a slow pace in the period 1982 to 1989 (by 2.3% yearly), and at a much higher rate in the period of the mass immigration (by 4.9% per year). This decade marked a high increase in unemployment compared to that of the employed. While in 1982 the rate of unemployment (unemployed as a percent of the labor force) was 5%, it increased to 6.4% in 1988 and increased sharply up to 10% in 2002. This was caused partly by the entry into the labor force of a large number of new immigrants who were still looking for a job in the first stages of their stay in the country. The main trends regarding labor force participation found in the 1970s continued through the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s. The major development is the continuous increase in the participation of women in the labor force; from 36% of the women aged 15 and over in the labor force in 1982 to 48.4% in 2002, with women constituting 42% of all the labor force. Another continuous trend was the decrease in the labor force participation of men, mostly in the retirement and pre-retirement ages. The participation of men aged 55–64 in the labor force declined from more than 80% in 1982 to 65.9% in 2002, and of those aged 65 and over from 28% to 15.4%. Smaller declines are also found in age 35 and over. Thus, the labor force has become more feminine and of a younger age. The continuous increase in the proportion of those aged 35–44 in the labor force was related to the changes in the age structure and to the decline in participation in other ages. The labor force is of a higher level of education. Thus persons who had 13 years and over of schooling constituted 28% of the labor force in 1982 and 38% in 2002 (17% had 16 years and over of schooling). The high level of education of the mass immigration which arrived from 1990 contributed to this trend. The average number of hours worked by the employed population was 36.0 per week. No important trend changes were noticed in the decade 1982–2002. The large increase of the employed population between 1982 and 2002 was absorbed in the various branches of the economy in similar proportions. Some differences were noticed; a continued decrease in the proportion of those employed in agriculture and industry; the proportion working in construction increased as activity in this branch grew in 1990–91 owing to the large-scale building for immigrants. In addition to the Israelis employed in the construction industry, some 70,000 workers from Judea and Samaria and the Gaza Region were employed in this branch in Israel. The proportion of those working in commerce, business, and personal services continued its growth. The occupational distribution of the employed population did undergo some changes: the percent of those in scientific and academic (8.2%, 1982; 8.9%, 1991), professional and technical (14.6%, 1982; 16.8%, 1991), managerial/administrators (4.2%, 1982; 5.1%, 1991; 7.3%, 2002;), clerical (18.5%, 1982; 16.5%, 1991; 17.0%, 2002), sales (7.5%, 1982; 8.7%, 1991), and service workers (12%, 1982; 13.2%, 1991; 18.5%, 2002) rose, while those in agricultural (5.2%, 1982; 3.4%, 1991), skilled (25.1%, 1982; 23.7%, 1991; 20.3% 2002), and other occupations declined. Some 81% of all employed persons in 1992 were wage and salary earners, 14% were employers, self-employed persons and members of cooperatives, 4% were kibbutz members, and 1% were unpaid family workers. The Israeli Household The average Israeli household (i.e., the group of people living regularly in the same apartment and sharing common meals, including households of one person) consisted in 2002 of 3.37 persons (3.4 persons in the Jewish household and 5.5 persons in the Arab household). There were in Israel in 2002, 1.85 million households (1.56 million Jewish). The typical household (68.3% of all households) consisted of a couple with or without children, and in some of them also additional members; 17.6% were households of one person (i.e., widows living alone, young persons living on their own outside their family, etc.), 4.6% were one-parent households with children. Other households consisted of various other structures. The long-term trend of a slow decrease in the size of the average Israeli household was not found in the 1990s. This trend was reversed in the Jewish population, and a small increase was registered in the Jewish population. This resulted from the entrance of immigrants in 1990–92 in larger households. Though immigrants from Russia came in small nuclear families, some proportion of the families lived together in the same household (i.e., a couple with a parent or parents of the husband or wife). The proportion of single-member households, which increased continuously up to 1989 (15% of Jewish households in 1981 and 17% in 1989) decreased somewhat (17.6% in 2002), as did larger households of 5 members and over (from 27.2% in 1989 to 24.7% in 1997). Large differences in the size of households were found between households of various communities. The average household of those born in Africa in 1997 was 3.54, in Asia 3.17, and in Europe and America 2.80. The household of those born in Israel was 3.65, resulting from the young age structure of this group. HOUSEHOLD FORMATION AND DISSOLUTION The number of marriages and their frequency continued decreasing in the 1980s, as formal marriage was postponed, by some one year for grooms and brides who married for the first time. This occurred as cohabitation of younger men and women continued increasing. The decrease in the marriage rate was found in all age groups but especially in the younger age groups.   The dissolution of families by divorce increased to a small extent. One of every nine marriages contracted in Israel was broken by divorce. The divorced couple was married on the average for 11.5 years and had 1.8 children on divorcing. (Moshe Sicron) -JEWISH COMMUNITIES ("EDOT") Jews who went to Ereẓ Israel from a particular geographical region, country, or sometimes town or district often brought with them a characteristic cultural heritage, comprising language (in some cases specifically Jewish, like yiddish , ladino , judeo-arabic , judeo-persian , Georgian, or Kurdish aramaic ), religious rites and customs, habits, and traditions. They are sometimes referred to, figuratively, as modern "tribes" (shevatim). Members of such a group, known as an edah (plur. edot), usually established their own synagogues, burial societies (see ḥevra kaddisha ), and mutual aid or charitable organizations, built their own quarters or (in modern times) settled in the same villages, and tended to support each other in local or, to a smaller extent, national politics. The term edot often applies specifically to those groups of immigrants who came from, or trace their origin to, the Islamic countries ("Oriental" immigrants). The edot preserved their identity, to a greater or lesser extent, for several generations, their members tending to marry within the edah, and the tensions between them were of some importance in the history of the yishuv and the State of Israel (See israel , State of: Population, section on Intercommunal Problems). There are no accurate statistics on the sizes of the various edot, as census figures specify only countries of origin and language groups, which are not identical with community membership. Communal separatism is particularly recognizable in the composition of the populations of neighborhoods and various streets in Jerusalem, in which about 100 quarters were founded up to the establishment of the State of Israel – most of them on a communal basis – and also in greater Tel Aviv, Haifa, and some other towns. The attempt to mix various communities in the new-immigrant moshavim after the creation of the State of Israel was generally unsuccessful. It was abandoned in the 1950s, after which most of the new settlements were established on a more-or-less homogeneous basis from the point of view of origin and social mores. In the kibbutzim the percentage of non-Ashkenazim is small, but in many of them youth groups composed of immigrants from Asia and Africa have been successfully absorbed. The Ashkenazi Community This is the largest and, socially, politically, and economically, the most important and influential community in the country. The Ashkenazim consist of Jews of European origin and their descendants, including most of North and South American Jewry. Most Ashkenazi families spoke – or at least understood – Yiddish at some point in their history. Ashkenazim first went to Ereẓ Israel as individuals or as families from the 13th century onward, and, at the latest by the middle of the 15th century, founded their own community in Jerusalem. In the 18th century it numbered a few hundred souls, but ceased to exist, temporarily, after the first quarter of the century. In Safed, however, there was an Ashkenazi community from the 16th century, and it grew particularly after the ḥasidic immigration in 1777. Some of the newcomers moved to Tiberias, and it was from those two towns that the Ashkenazi community in Jerusalem was revived. In 1816 the Perushim, the opponents of the Ḥasidim, organized their own community in Jerusalem. According to a census held in 1839 on behalf of moses montefiore , the number of Ashkenazim in the country was 1,714 – 26.2% of the total Jewish population. In the next 75 years, until the outbreak of World War I, when the Jewish population grew to about 85,000, most of the immigrants who created the "old yishuv" were Ashkenazim. In 1876/77 they numbered 6,800 in Jerusalem – 43% of the city's Jewish population; two-thirds of them were Perushim and the rest Ḥasidim. By the time of the First Aliyah (1882), they constituted half of the 25,000 Jews in the country, and for many years afterward the proportion of Ashkenazim among the immigrants was on the increase. It is estimated that in 1895 they numbered 25,800 – 63% of the 40,700 Jews; in Jerusalem they constituted 15,000 out of 28,000 Jews, in Safed 4,500 out of 6,600, in Tiberias 1,600 out of 3,200, and in Jaffa 1,700 out of 3,000. The overwhelming majority of the 2,200 Jews in the new agricultural settlements were Ashkenazim. According to the 1916–18 census, Ashkenazim accounted for 60% of the 56,700 Jews left in the country after the hardships of World War I. They constituted the majority (about 85%) of the immigrants from the end of the war until the creation of the State of Israel (1948). At the time of the declaration of the state, more than 80% of the 650,000 Jews in Israel were Ashkenazim, but since then their proportion of the total population has been steadily on the decrease, due to the increased immigration from Asian and African countries and the comparatively low Ashkenazi birthrate. In the 1961 census, community of origin was not recorded, but on the basis of the information on country of origin and father's country of origin, it may be estimated that Ashkenazim constituted 52.5% of the population; by 1965 they had declined to less than half the total. In 1948, 46.8% of the Jews speaking foreign languages spoke Yiddish as their sole language or as the first after Hebrew. By 1961 the proportion had decreased to 22.7% (273,615 persons). Other languages spoken by Ashkenazim were German (73,195), Romanian (69,945), Polish (51,760), English (46,615), Hungarian (43,245), Russian (21,255), Czech and Slovak (4,095), Dutch and Flemish (1,530); smaller groups spoke French, Spanish, Serb, Bulgarian, Portuguese, Danish, and Swedish. The Sephardi Community The Sephardim in the strict sense of the term, that is, those speaking Ladino or their descendants, have the longest continuous history in the country, the origin of the community   dating back to the 15th or early 16th century. It assimilated the Portuguese Jews, expelled a decade or two earlier, who are mentioned by the 16th-century travelers, the remnants of the Byzantine Jews, and, at a later period, the Musta'rabs (Arabic-speaking Jews) and Jews from other communities, including some Ashkenazim. Individual Jews of Spanish origin were living in Ereẓ Israel as far back as the 11th century, but there was little immigration in medieval times, and, moreover, few of the Jews expelled from Spain and Portugal at the end of the 15th century made their way to Ereẓ Israel because of the insecure conditions in the country. By the end of the 15th century, however, there were many Sephardim in Safed and in 1509 there was a separate Sephardi community in Jerusalem. The flow of immigration increased after the Ottoman conquest, the immigrants receiving aid from their brethren who had settled in Turkey. The Sephardi community of the 16th century developed a flourishing social and cultural life; it included many famous talmudic scholars and served as a center for learning for the whole of the Diaspora. In the census of 1839 Sephardim were incorporated with the Jews from the Oriental communities, but on the basis of the country of origin of Jews born abroad, it can be estimated that at least half of the total were Sephardim. With the creation of the post of ḥakham bashi (chief rabbi) of Jerusalem by the Ottoman authorities in 1842, this honored post was always occupied by a Sephardi. During the 19th century, there were no organized groups of Sephardi immigrants, but there was increased Sephardi immigration in some years, e.g., after the liberation of Greece in 1829 and of Bulgaria in 1878. By 1877 there were 5,970 Sephardim (not including the Maghrebis – immigrants from North Africa) in Jerusalem, and it appears that 5,500 of this number, 40% of the Jewish population of the city, were descendants of exiles from Spain. Most of them were employed in various branches of commerce, but a few families from Bulgaria settled on the land at Hartuv. There was little Sephardi immigration in the 20th century until 1948, and the Sephardim, therefore, did not found their own quarters in Jerusalem like the other communities. Until 1920, however, when the Ashkenazi chief rabbinate was established, it was the ḥakham bashi (also styled rishon le-Zion) who was the official religious head of the entire Jewish community. In Jerusalem, the Sephardi community maintained its own community council and ḥevra kaddisha. In the 1961 census, 63,000 persons, including some Ashkenazim from South America, entered "Spanish" as their sole or second language; 31,535 spoke Bulgarian; 7,750 Turkish (young people who had been educated in state schools in their country of origin); and 2,635 Greek. The Italian Community Visitors and individual settlers came from Italy in all periods and Italian Jews in Jerusalem are mentioned until close to 1870. It was only after Mussolini's anti-Jewish measures in 1938, however, that significant numbers settled in Palestine, when about 500 Italian Jews, including a high proportion of scientists and technological experts, arrived. A number of synagogues have been fitted out with Sefer Torah arks and other furnishings transferred from disused synagogues in Italy. According to the 1961 census, 5,300 persons spoke Italian, 1,650 as their first or only language. This figure, however, may have included some Jews from Libya (Tripolitania). Jews from the Maghreb This term includes all the Jews of North Africa, with the exception of Egypt. Jews from the Maghreb had come to Ereẓ Israel as far back as the 11th century, though mostly as individuals, and in 1218 al-Ḥarizi mentions a maghrebi community in Jerusalem. Immigration increased after the defeat of the crusaders, and individual Maghrebi Jews settled in Jerusalem throughout the centuries. In 1509 there was a Maghreb community in Safed as well. From the second third of the 19th century onward, immigration from the area increased, mostly from morocco , with smaller numbers from Tunisia. For a time there was also immigration from algeria , but it dwindled with the spread of French culture in that country. Jews from these countries were the founders of the Jewish communities in Jaffa, where 18% were of Maghreb origin in 1905, and in Haifa. In the first half of the 20th century there was a decline in the proportion of educated and professional men among the immigrants from this area. Before World War I there were an estimated 2,000 Maghreb Jews in Jerusalem. During the British Mandate period there was hardly any immigration to Palestine from these countries, but since the middle 1950s Jews from the Maghreb have constituted a high proportion of the immigrants. In 2002 there were 163,000 Jews who were born or whose parents were born in Morocco, 41,200 from Algeria and tunisia , and 18,800 from libya , almost the entire Jewish community of which settled in Israel. Many of them were among the 122,250 persons who in 1961 recorded Arabic as their first or only language. Of the 24,300 who spoke only, or mainly, French, the majority were from Algeria and Tunisia; the majority of the 43,000 who gave it as their second language were Moroccan. Many Jews from Libya also spoke Italian. Some Berber-speaking Jews from the Atlas mountains settled in the Adullam region. The Maghreb community in Jerusalem has its own ḥevra kaddisha. Iraqi (Babylonian) Jews It is customary nowadays to describe the Arabic-speaking Jews from southern and central iraq , and even from parts of northern Iraq (Mosul), as "Iraqis," but their community and ḥevra kaddisha in Jerusalem, unlike that in Ramat Gan, are still called "Bavlim" – Babylonians. Until the middle of the 19th century, very few immigrants came from that part of the world because of the long and dangerous journey. With the introduction of steamships, which traveled down the Tigris River through the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea to Ereẓ Israel, immigration from Iraq increased. In the 30 years preceding World War I, there was a small community of Iraqi Jews, with three synagogues, which printed its own books in Hebrew with translation in Iraqi Jewish Arabic and booklets   in the same dialect. In 1916 the community had 371 members. Between the two world wars, the Zionist idea flourished in Baghdad and Hebrew teachers were sent there from Palestine, but they were expelled in 1935 with the growth of the Arab national movement. Their ties with the yishuv were renewed during World War II, when many Jews served in the British forces in Iraq or went there to help in the transfer of refugees from the U.S.S.R. and Persia. In 1951 almost the entire Jewish community was forced to leave ( Israel , State of: Aliyah and Absorption), thus virtually liquidating the oldest Jewish community outside Israel. In 2002, 171,700 Jews were registered as of Iraqi origin, among them 2,000–3,000 of Kurdish extraction. The Iraqi community in Israel includes people from all strata of society and of all educational levels. Jews from Aleppo Throughout the ages, there had been immigration from aleppo , which was an important Jewish economic and scholastic center. Most of the immigrants, however, assimilated with the Musta ʿ rabs and later with the Sephardim. In 1862 they founded the synagogue of Aram Zoba (Aleppo) in the Old City of Jerusalem, and by 1908 eight more synagogues had been founded in the quarters outside the Old City. The second and third generations of the Aleppo community included large numbers of traders and distinguished scholars. It is difficult to estimate the number of Jews of Aleppan origin. In the 2002 census they were recorded with the 36,900 from Syria and Lebanon. Yemenites Few Jews from yemen settled in Ereẓ Israel before the 19th century. Noteworthy among them were R. solomon adani in the 16th century and R. shalom sharabi in the 18th. The travels of R. jacob saphir and the Orientalist joseph halevy in Yemen may have stimulated Yemenite Jews to go to Ereẓ Israel, and in 1882 a few hundred of them joined together and made their way to Jerusalem with only the clothes on their backs. The help extended to them by the Jews of Jerusalem and the Diaspora did little to alleviate their distress. In 1885 Ashkenazim active in the community purchased a tract of land for them in the village of Silwān, south of Jerusalem, which was extended over the years. In 1908 it contained five synagogues, as the Yemenites in Ereẓ Israel split into two groups: one following the traditional Yemenite (Baladī) version of the prayers, which goes back to the Middle Ages, and the other following the "Syrian" (Shāmī) rite, that of the Sephardi communities (with many deviations). In addition, special houses of prayer had to be established for the devotees of the Zohar and the Kabbalah and their opponents (the "Dor De'ah"); the Yemenites also had prayer houses in the Old City and 14 small ones in the poorer quarters of Jerusalem outside the walls. The Yemenites' reputation as diligent farm workers suggested the idea of bringing more of them to Ereẓ Israel and the plan succeeded through the efforts of shmuel yavnieli , an emissary of the Palestine Office in Jaffa. Three convoys arrived in 1908/09 and settled in the large moshavot of Judea and Samaria, where special neighborhoods were established for them. The Yemenite Jews separated themselves from the Sephardim and established a separate community with a rabbi, bet din, ritual slaughter facilities, and cemetery plots of their own. They were outstanding for the level of their religious Jewish scholarship and their devotion to the Torah. In spite of the smallness of the community, they printed their special prayer book (tiktāl), R. saadiah gaon 's translation of the Pentateuch (Sharḥ), and other religious books. They still preserve their traditional pronunciation and melodies in prayer and the reading of the Torah (together with the Aramaic Targum), the haftarot, and the Five Scrolls. In 1916 it was estimated that there were 4,058 Yemenites in Palestine: 1,636 in Jerusalem, 859 in Jaffa, 943 in the moshavot in Judea and 620 in Samaria and Galilee. Almost all the Jews in Yemen were transferred to Israel during "Operation Magic Carpet" (1949–50), and many were absorbed in villages and development towns. In the 1961 census close to 120,000 people born in Yemen and Aden, or whose father was born there, were registered and at the end of 2002 the estimated Yemenite population of Israel was 146,000. The veteran members of the community have risen in the social scale and their characteristic leanness has gradually disappeared with the improvement of nutritional standards (although the adoption of the Israel diet has made them susceptible to certain illnesses from which they were previously virtually immune). Georgians (in the vernacular, Gurjim). The first Jews from georgia (Heb. Geruzyah) arrived in Ereẓ Israel in about 1860, after the development of steamboat transportation. By 1862 they had established a house of prayer in the Old City of Jerusalem and before 1914 had five more in their quarters near the Damascus Gate (abandoned in the riots of 1929. and in the Simeon ha-Ẓaddik quarter in the north of the city. After the disturbances of 1936 they dispersed throughout Jerusalem. They spoke Georgian in the Diaspora and are the only Oriental Jewish community that did not employ Hebrew letters to write their vernacular. No scholars from Georgia settled in Ereẓ Israel, but once in the country some members of the community turned to the study of the Torah. The Georgians succeeded in commerce, and some grew wealthy. In 1916 there were 420 Georgian Jews in Jerusalem and 19 in Jaffa. As Russian nationals they were forced to leave the country during World War I, but after the war most of them returned. Since 1916 they have not been registered as a special community in the censuses. Since the establishment of the State of Israel, their language has been growing extinct and their unity as a community has been disintegrating. After the Six-Day War there was a reawakening among Georgian Jews of the desire to go to Israel. Several groups of them are settled in Lydda, Kiryat Malakhi, and other places.   Persians It appears that the first Persian-speaking Jews who settled in Jerusalem after the destruction of the Second Temple were karaites , who came in the middle of the ninth century. In 1839 14 Persians were registered in Safed. In about 1815 the Perushim in Jerusalem were said to have hired an ʿ Ajami ("foreigner" in Arabic, i.e., a Persian) to complete their minyan. The first Persian house of prayer in Jerusalem was founded in 1895 in the Shevet Ẓedek quarter (near Maḥaneh Yehudah) and eight more were established through 1908. In the same year, 80 Persian pupils studied in two talmud torah schools in Jerusalem. In 1916 120 Persians were registered in the city: it appears that many more of them registered as Sephardim. Before the end of the 19th century Jews came to Ereẓ Israel from isfahan and, especially, meshed , and the numbers grew after the establishment of the State of Israel. The Jews from Meshed, who were descendants of forced converts to Islam, were known as Jadīd al-Islām "neo-Muslims." They were the richest of the Persian community and created international commercial ties in the export of rugs. Since the Ottoman period they have had two synagogues in the Bukharan quarter of Jerusalem and others lived in some of the poorer quarters. During the Mandate and after the establishment of the state, the educated and affluent among them scattered throughout the new quarters of the city. Two communities, the "Persian" and the "Iranian," were registered during the Mandate period, because of an internal dispute, but this distinction later disappeared. Jews from Afghanistan are also counted among the Persians. In 2002 about 135,400 people were of Iranian extraction, 84,600 of whom were born in the country. More than 37,000 of them spoke Persian, and for 16,370 it was their only tongue or their first language after Hebrew (see iran ). Bukharans This term is used to denote Jews who speak a Persian dialect and whose land of origin is uzbekistan . In 1827 the first Bukharans set out for Ereẓ Israel and reached Baghdad, but it is not known if any of them actually arrived in Ereẓ Israel. After bukhara was conquered by the Russians, individual Bukharans settled in Ereẓ Israel in 1868 and in the middle of the 1870s a number of Bukharan families were living in Jerusalem. Following R. Yaakov Meir 's journey to Bukhara in 1882 as an emissary for charitable institutions, hundreds of affluent families settled in Ereẓ Israel, and in 1892 they established a quarter in Jerusalem ("Street of the Bukharans"), which was uncommonly spacious and elegant for the period. In most of the families some of the members kept up their businesses in Bukhara while others lived in Jerusalem and were supported by the profits of the family business (in some instances, the members abroad and in Ereẓ Israel changed places every few years). In 1908 the Bukharans had 17 beautiful synagogues in Jerusalem, and the number had grown by 1914. During this period the affluent members of the community had books printed in their native language and in Persian, which they understood. During World War I some of the Bukharans fled and some remained in a state of poverty and deprivation. The Communist authorities in Uzbekistan confiscated the property of the Jews, and those who succeeded in returning to Ereẓ Israel supported themselves by renting out houses. In the census of 1961, 2,300 people were registered as "Bukharan"-speaking, but only 660 entered the language as their only or first tongue. Dagestanis A few hundred Jews from Dagestan, who speak Tat (an Iranian dialect), settled in Ereẓ Israel at the beginning of the 20th century: some in Be'er Ya'akov, which was established by them, and some in Jerusalem. Their courage and command of weapons won them a reputation in Ereẓ Israel and in the Diaspora, and some of them were outstanding in ha-shomer . As Russian nationals they were also affected by the expulsion at the outbreak of World War I, but some of them returned during the Mandate period, especially to Tel Aviv, where they lived in the "Caucasian" Quarter. Some of those born in Ereẓ Israel do not speak the language used by the community in the Diaspora. Krimchaks The Krimchaks are Rabbanites (in contradistinction to the Karaites) from the crimea who speak "Judeo-Tatar" ; their aliyah may have had some connection with R. hezekiah medini . Before 1915 they had a small community in Jerusalem and published books and pamphlets in their native tongue, apparently for export. They also departed during World War I and in 1916 there was only one family left. After the war a few returned and established their own synagogue in Tel Aviv. Kurds During the 19th century, individuals from the cities and townships of kurdistan settled in Ereẓ Israel, and at the beginning of the 20th century, a few hundred more followed. Their language, mistakenly called "Kurdish," is a modern Eastern Aramaic and they consequently called themselves Targum Jews. They lived in some of the poorer quarters in western Jerusalem in huts constructed from discarded kerosene cans, boards, and the like (known as the "Tin Quarter," now called Shevet Ẓedek), although stone houses were later constructed. In 1908 they built their own synagogue. Physically powerful and trained for physical labor over the generations, the Kurds were dominant among the porters in the large cities. Some of them helped the Europeans of the Second Aliyah to establish settlements in Lower Galilee. The conquest of Iraq by the British liberated the Jews in the mountains of Kurdistan from their subservience to local feudal lords, but few of them left their villages. With the call to settle in Israel in 1951, however, they abandoned their property and moved to Israel en masse. Most of them settled on the land and their youth adjusted to the Israel way of life. In 1916 174 Kurds were registered in Jerusalem and 222 in Galilee (together with the Urfalis, see below). In 1916, 8,560 Kurdish-speaking residents were recorded, and 3,920 entered   Kurdish as their only language or first language after Hebrew. The Kurds have their own ḥevra kaddisha in Jerusalem. Close to the Kurds from the point of view of language (but not in life style) are the Jews of persian azerbaijan , most of whom settled in Ereẓ Israel after World War I (immigrating via various countries) and established synagogues in Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, and other places. Exact population figures are not to be had. Most of the older generation deal in commerce, while the youth are employed in technical trades. Urfalis The Urfalis and residents of the other cities of Upper Urfa (in southern turkey ) speak Arabic. Jews from this area began to settle in Jerusalem at the beginning of the 20th century; their first house of prayer was established in 1904. In 1916 206 of them were registered in Jerusalem and a few more in Galilee (together with the Kurds). Settlers from two towns in the mountains north of Urfa (Jarmuk and Siverek), who came with the Urfalis, were registered in 1916 and during the Mandate period as a separate community. In 1916 there were about 200 of them in Jerusalem, where they had a special synagogue. In the same year there were several settlers from Diyarbakir, who were joined by others from the same place during the 1920s in the wake of the Kurdish revolt in their area of Turkey. They also established a synagogue in Jerusalem. Musta'rabs This term denotes Jews who adopted the language and life style of their Arab neighbors, and some of whom, it appears, were descendants of families that never went into exile. Over the years, most of the Mustaʿrabs were absorbed into the Sephardi community in the broad sense of the term, and only a few families remained in Peki'in . In the 20th century, even those families, except for one clan, dispersed in Galilee and Samaria. Karaites As early as the middle of the ninth century C.E., a movement to settle in Jerusalem and mourn the destruction of the Temple arose among the karaites in Babylon and Persia. In the first generation of the tenth century, the Karaite community in Jerusalem was stronger and larger than the Rabbanite one, but the crusaders destroyed it in 1099. In 1540 Karaites settled for a short period in Hebron. In the middle of the 18th century some settled in Jerusalem and established a synagogue, which continued to exist (but never had a minyan of worshipers) until the fall of the Old City in 1948. After the establishment of the State of Israel, about 2,000 Karaites went from Egypt to the new state and settled mainly in Ramleh, Ashdod, Beersheba, and the moshavim of Maẓli'aḥ , near Ramleh and ofakim in the northern Negev. The determination of their status, as Jews according to halakhah or as a separate religious community, aroused difficult problems. Indian Jews After the establishment of the State of Israel, members of two closely knit communities went from india : the bene israel , who speak Marathi, and the Jews from cochin , who speak Malayalam. Through 1954, 1,200 of the Bene Israel settled in Israel, and in 1965 their number had grown to 7,000. Because of their remoteness from the Jewish world and their ignorance of rabbinical laws of marriage and divorce, the halakhic problem of recognizing their right to marry within the Jewish community arose on their arrival. In 1970, there were about 3,400 Cochin Jews in Israel, many of whom settled in development towns and moshavim established by them in the Judean Mountains. (Abraham J. Brawer) -INTERCOMMUNAL PROBLEMS A basic factor in the relationship between the "communities" (edot) in Israel is the long-standing dominance of the Ashkenazim in the economic, social, cultural, and political spheres. As a result, the various edot did not undergo a process of mutual acculturation: instead, the non-Ashkenazi communities tended to assimilate with the Ashkenazi community and adopt its values and way of life. To the extent that the process of assimilation was impeded, inter-community tension developed and was made much more acute by the fact that the distinctions between the communities were largely superimposed on the existing economic and educational stratification: on the whole, the Ashkenazim were better educated and more prosperous, while there was a higher proportion of poverty, under-education, and illiteracy among the Sephardim and other Oriental communities, particularly the new immigrants from African and Asian countries. The closing of the gap between "the first Israel" and "the second Israel" became a central problem. The alleviation of intercommunal tension through the "integration of the exiles" (mizzug galuyyot) became a major aim of national policy. At the same time, the opinion was widely held that the tension would be alleviated with the disintegration of the communities themselves and the disappearance of communal allegiances, and that as long as the communities themselves continued to exist there would not be a sense of a united people in Israel. This process of disintegration, however, proved a much more lengthy and complicated process than was initially envisaged. During the period of the British Mandate, when a large Ashkenazi majority was created by the mass aliyah from Europe and the comparatively small aliyah from Asian and African countries, intercommunal tension was expressed primarily in the relations between various Ashkenazi groups, such as "Russians." "Poles," and "Galicians," but especially between these three groups together (Eastern Ashkenazim) and those from central Europe (Western Ashkenazim). This situation even led to the crystallization of specific political groups (such as the Aliyah Ḥadashah Party established by immigrants from "Central Europe" – actually from Germany). The sting of this tension became blunted, however, during the first few years after the founding of the state due to the arrival of thousands of immigrants from the Islamic countries, as the differences between the newcomers and the Ashkenazim   obscured the much finer distinctions between the groups within the Ashkenazi community. Among the Ashkenazi community no one group was outstandingly superior in the economic, political, and educational spheres: immigrants from Eastern Europe had molded the main institutions of the country and its pre-1948 ethos and they were dominant in the political leadership of the Zionist Organization, the yishuv, and afterward of the state and in their contribution to the shaping of social values. Immigrants from Germany were distinguished in the liberal professions and economic life and those from Western Europe and America were prominent in the technological and scientific developments after 1948. The confrontation between Ashkenazim and non-Ashkenazim, on the other hand, took place under conditions of obvious inequality. Until the establishment of the new yishuv, the communal frameworks were accepted as the basis of public life and there was no conscious aspiration to merge the edot. This aim was a product of the modern nationalist movement and the new yishuv, and since the builders of the new yishuv were Ashkenazim, the idea of "merging" was conceived as the assimilation of non-Ashkenazim to the way of life and value system of the Ashkenazim. At the same time the secular character of the new yishuv widened the gap between the two groups by undermining the religious base common to Jews of all communities. Under the Ottoman regime, the Jews of the new yishuv did not hold commanding economic and political positions in the life of the community: indeed, these hardly existed at all until the institution of the Mandatory regime. When the new yishuv acquired such positions during the 1920s, political and communal organizations began to develop among the Sephardim, but they reflected, for the most part, the aspirations of affluent businessmen and products of a Western education, themselves candidates for rapid assimilation to the Ashkenazi way of life. The problem of intercommunal relations became of central importance with the large immigration after the establishment of the state, which created a situation of numerical equality between Ashkenazim and non-Ashkenazim. The immigrants from Islamic countries, especially from areas that had had all but no contact with Europe (such as Yemen) or countries from which it was mainly the poorer strata who came without the communal leadership (such as Morocco), quickly became an economic, social, and especially cultural proletariat in Israel. They felt uprooted in their new surroundings, where the dominant social forces demanded that they abandon their traditions and culture and assimilate unconditionally into modern Israeli society, which was basically Western. Consciously or unconsciously, the authorities and the prevailing public opinion in the country tended to regard the older generation of new immigrants from Islamic countries as a lost generation that would eventually die off, and their main concern was to help the younger generation throw off the burden of its paternalistic traditions. Israel society, however, was successful in many instances only in shattering the patriarchal family structure, which was the principal framework of the immigrants from Islamic countries, and thus destroying old values without simultaneously transferring its own value system as an integral part of the newcomer's personality. In effect, this resulted in the creation of a segment of society that was socially displaced, living on the fringes of two cultures and attracted to the glittering commercial aspects of modern materialistic culture. However, manifestations of intercommunal tension and bitterness did not come about principally as a result of cultural deprivation, but because of discrimination affecting the immigrants personally. Basically, this discrimination was a consequence of culture deprivations; but this was not the major complaint of the immigrants from Islamic countries. Their complaint was that their absorption into Western society was not being sufficiently accelerated, that they were being prevented from enjoying its social and material fruits to the same extent as the Europeans, and that prejudice was being displayed toward them. The non-Ashkenazim developed psychological sensitivity toward what the Ashkenazim said and did, and this sensitivity sharpened intercommunal tension. Most of the communities that came from Islamic countries did not develop a leadership that could serve as their spokesman (with the exception, to a certain degree, of the Yemenites – some of whom were considered veterans – and Jews from Iraq, who came en masse together with their communal elite). Manifestations of bitterness by "the second Israel" generally took the form of outbursts – sometimes violent – by individuals; there were very few mob outbreaks, the most serious of which occurred in 1959, especially in the Wadi Salib quarter of Haifa. However, attempts to establish political parties on a communal basis proved failures. Almost all the political parties made a habit of including in their election lists a token number of candidates from the "Oriental" communities and every government had one or two members from these communities. In the 1960s there was a slackening in intercommunal tensions. This was partly a result of the integration of children of all the communities in the school system. In the early years of the State it was felt that a common education would eliminate differences, but cultural deprivation was perpetuated even under equal educational facilities. Factors at work here were differences in home background and tradition (Oriental families did not have the same tradition of sacrificing everything for their children's education), in living conditions (Oriental families could not provide the same atmosphere for study), the Western outlook of the schools and the teachers, and the concentration of better teaching facilities in the large cities (whereas the Oriental communities were largely in the development areas). There was thus a high dropout rate among pupils of Oriental origin. However, steady progress was evidenced, for example, by the fact that whereas 13% of secondary school pupils in   1956 were from Afro-Asian origin, the percentage increased to 26% in 1961/62 and 42.6% in 1969/70 – though in the 12th (highest) grade the percentage in the latter year was still only 30.2%. Conscious efforts were made to help such children, not only by special tuition and scholarships, but even by lowering pass standards for children of Afro-Asian background so as to encourage them to continue their education. The rate of intermarriage between Ashkenazi and Sephardi-Oriental communities has risen less sharply than was forecast in the early years of the State but it has nevertheless shown a consistent increase. In the late 1960s, 17% of all Jewish marriages were between the two groups. In addition, army service, in which members of all communities meet under conditions of equality, also helped to blur intercommunal distinctions and the common experiences of the Six-Day War and its aftermath had a powerful influence in the same direction. In 1971, however, there was some recrudescence of intercommunal tension. Attempts to draw parallels with community problems in other countries are misleading. There are no racial distinctions between the edot in Israel; there is a feeling of common national (and, obviously, religious) affiliation; there is no legal discrimination against the members of any community; and no one in Israel is interested in perpetuating the gap between the communities. On the contrary, every effort has been made to work toward the fullest integration. Basically, the communal problem in Israel is only the outcome of a sudden confrontation of two cultures, the first sure of itself and the second in a stage of decline, and of the high correlation between communal affiliation and social and educational attributes. These factors reinforce each other, it is true, but the weakening of one also tends to weaken the other. The sense of communal affiliation is on the decrease among those born in Israel; and immigrants from Islamic countries are rising in social status, being exposed to the dominant culture in the country, and in integration with the Ashkenazim without feeling it necessary to create a parallel leadership of their own. (Aharon Amir) Tensions between Jews from African-Asian countries and the Ashkenazi elements in Israel continued from 1970. They were expressed in the early 1970s with the emergence of a group calling themselves the Black Panthers who demanded better jobs and educational opportunities for Jews from Islamic countries. The election in 1977 of Menaḥem Begin and the Likud Party helped change the image of these Jews in their own eyes, since many of them supported the Likud against the Labor Party, which was accused of not doing enough to close the ethnic gap. Mr. Begin launched a program called "Project Renewal" designed to rehabilitate 160 distressed neighborhoods throughout Israel with world Jewry aid. The plan was on the whole a success. For a while it seemed that tensions were abating, and that those "Oriental" Jews had finally found their niche in Israeli society. This was illustrated by the growing number of such Jews in the Knesset, government, top army ranks, and the professions. Almost half of the members of the cabinet came from such families who had grown up in development towns. There was a marked improvement in housing solutions and educational opportunities. This changed, however, with the onset of the massive immigration from the former Soviet Union, especially that beginning in 1989. This brought to Israel some one million immigrants up to 2002, many of whom were highly trained, educated, and skilled. The attention of Israel was now focused on their immediate absorption. This was seen by many "Oriental" Jews as being accomplished at their expense. The feeling was rife that the Russian immigration, with its tremendous potential, had once again pushed down the eastern Jews to the lower rungs of Israeli society with little chance of breaking out of what they considered to be a vicious circle. They accused both the Likud and Labor governments of not paying enough attention to their plight. Although some of the resentment was imaginary, much of it was real and based on statistics such as poverty lines, slum areas populated by these Jews, and massive unemployment mainly in development towns populated by this segment of Israeli society. There was no appreciable rise in the number of eastern Jews graduating from universities or finding jobs other than as industrial workers. The anger was seen in the rise of new political parties based solely on ethnic (and religious) lines in the case of Shas and neighborhood lines in the case of the David Levy faction in the Likud, seen as a counter-balance to the possibility of a "Russian" political party. While the two major political blocs assigned spots in their Knesset slates to eastern Jews, this was not enough to assuage the frustration felt mainly by the second and third generation trying to break out of what they considered a gridlock. By 2002 the ethnic element was seen to be playing an important role in national politics, but at a lower priority than the peace process which seemed to absorb the almost total attention of the government, another cause for resentment and bitterness. (Meron Medzini) -THE NON-JEWISH POPULATION Ottoman Period Although no detailed statistical data are available for the Ottoman period, it is possible to sketch the main demographical characteristics of the non-Jewish population in the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Economic standards were, on the whole, very low, the population living largely on primitive agriculture. Urban development was limited; only a small part of the Muslim population lived in the towns, and in the few larger ones the proportion of Christians and Jews was considerable. As health services were almost nonexistent in most of the country and the government took very little interest in the health and welfare of the population, it may be assumed that mortality was high and offset the high   birthrate to a considerable extent. Under those conditions, the population increased slowly. A rough estimate for the year 1914 indicates that the total population of the area that later became Palestine under the British Mandate was 689,000; 604,000 non-Jews and 85,000 Jews. British Mandate Period During this period demographic conditions changed quickly. Map 1. Settlements with Jewish population numbering over 5,000, Nov. 1931. Map 1. Settlements with Jewish population numbering over 5,000, Nov. 1931.   In the first year of British administration, the situation of Muslims in Palestine was more or less similar to that of other countries in the Middle East, such as Egypt. Mortality was still high; malaria still predominated in certain regions of the country; trachoma was widespread; and epidemics of typhoid, measles, etc. were frequent. Child mortality was particularly high in 1927–29; for example, 41% of Muslim children died before reaching the age of five. Map 2. Settlements with Jewish population numbering over 5,000, Nov. 1948. Map 2. Settlements with Jewish population numbering over 5,000, Nov. 1948.     With improving health conditions, better security, economic development, and improved communications, however, mortality quickly decreased: the death rate of Muslims dropped from 30 per thousand in 1924–28 to 21 in 1939–41, while the average life expectancy increased from about 37 in 1926–27 to 47 and the child mortality up to the age of five fell to 29%. In the later years of the Mandate, mortality is known to have continued to decrease, but no reliable data are available (as the village heads who were responsible for reporting were also responsible for food distribution and were thus interested in concealing deaths). The fall in mortality was particularly marked in areas where the Arabs lived in closer contact with the Jewish population and could enjoy the services of Jewish physicians and medical institutions, as well as the benefits of more rapid economic development. Marriages during the Mandatory period were practically universal among the Muslim population and were contracted at a very young age. Remarriages of divorced and widowed persons were also frequent. Nuptial mores were on the whole very favorable to fertility, which was high, as measured in terms of children per woman in the entire productive span, and tended to increase during the period, due probably to improved health and economic conditions. Among the Muslim population, the fertility rate was 6.1 children per woman in 1927–29, 7.6 in 1939–41, and 8.1 in 1942–43. Among the Christians, marriage was less universal and fertility was lower on the average. Although no data are available on internal migration, it is known that a considerable movement took place toward the Coastal Plain, which developed more quickly under the impact of Jewish enterprise. The towns that increased their non-Jewish populations most were Jaffa, Haifa, and Gaza. In the interior of the country there was a very considerable development of the non-Jewish population only in Jerusalem; Hebron and Nablus each passed the 20,000 mark toward the end of the Mandatory period. On the whole, Judea and Samaria remained predominantly rural, having an urban population of less than 25% throughout the Mandatory period. Emigration from Palestine was, on the whole, very limited, while in periods of more intense economic development there was some immigration, mainly to find work, from neighboring countries. Under the impact of the large and growing natural increase, the main feature of the demographic evolution of non-Jews in the Mandatory period was the very considerable increase in population: the non-Jewish population almost doubled itself between 1922 and 1948. This corresponds to an average increase of 2.5% per year, which was exceptional at the time for underdeveloped countries. In the State of Israel: 1948–67 The tension in the late months of 1947 and the beginning of 1948, followed by the invasion from Arab countries and the War of Independence, brought about dramatic changes in the political and demographic situation. The territory of Mandatory Palestine was divided into three parts. In the part that passed under Israel rule, the non-Jewish population was drastically reduced by the flight of Arabs, who took refuge in various Arab states. The number of Palestinian Arab refugees has been assessed at different levels by different research workers, institutions, and political agencies. The difficulty in establishing the true figures stems from lack of accurate data for the end of the Mandatory period (the last census taken by the British authorities was in 1931), the fact that applicants for assistance from the United Nations Relief and Works Agency included many who were not refugees, and the inability of the UNRWA to keep accurate records of deaths, migration, and so on. Despite the difficulties, however, it may be roughly reckoned that the Arab population before the disturbances of 1947–48 and the war of 1948 in the part of Palestine that passed under Israel rule was of the order of magnitude of 750,000. It is known that after the departure of the refugees about 156,000 Arabs remained in Israel. The economic and social conditions of Israel's Arabs improved quickly and the death rate decreased to the same level as that of the Jewish population. Marriage among Muslims remained practically universal although a little more delayed than during the Mandatory period, and remarriage Non-Jews in Israel by Religion (19222002) Source: Statistical Abstract of Israel, Central Bureau of Statistics, Jerusalem. Source: Statistical Abstract of Israel, Central Bureau of Statistics, Jerusalem.") Non-Jews in Israel by Religion (1922–2002) Source: Statistical Abstract of Israel, Central Bureau of Statistics, Jerusalem.   Oct. 23, 19221 Nov. 18, 193111 Dec. 31, 19492 May 22, 19612 Dec. 31, 19693 19943,4 2002 8"> Source: Statistical Abstract of Israel, Central Bureau of Statistics, Jerusalem. 8"> 1 Palestine. 8"> 2 Israel. 8"> 3 Israel including East Jerusalem. 8"> 4 Average. 8"> 5 Druze only. Muslims 589,177 759,700 111,500 170,830 314,500 766,400 1,038,300 Christians 71,464 88,967 34,000 50,543 73,500 154,500 140,400 Druze and others 7,617 10,101 14,500 25,761 34,600 90,4005 355,400 TOTAL 668,258 858,768 160,000 247,134 422,600 1,011,300 1,534,100   Non-Jewish Population of Israel by District and Sub-District1,2 (19482003) Source: Statistical Abstract of Israel, Central Bureau of Statistics, Jerusalem. Source: Statistical Abstract of Israel, Central Bureau of Statistics, Jerusalem.") Non-Jewish Population of Israel by District and Sub-District1,2 (1948–2003) Source: Statistical Abstract of Israel, Central Bureau of Statistics, Jerusalem.   6"> Population (thousands) 5"> Percentages District and Sub-District Nov. 8, 1948 May 22, 1961 Dec. 31, 1969 Dec. 31, 1994 Dec. 31, 2003 Nov. 8, 1948 May 22, 1961 Dec. 31, 1969 Dec. 31, 1994 Dec. 31, 2003 11"> Source: Statistical Abstract of Israel, Central Bureau of Statistics, Jerusalem. 11"> 1 According to the boundaries of the sub-districts in the years listed. 11"> 2\. Excluding Golan Heights, Judea, Samaria, and Gaza. Jerusalem district 2.9 4.2 76.6 172.8 251.7 1.8 1.7 18.1 16.8 16.1 Northern district 90.6 142.8 202.7 468.1 611.0 58.1 57.7 48.0 45.4 39.3 Safed sub-district 1.9 3.0 3.9 8.4 15.3 1.2 1.2 0.9 0.8 1.0 Kinneret sub-district 5.1 7.9 10.9 22.4 32.2 3.3 3.2 2.6 2.2 2.1 Jezreel sub-district 34.9 53.5 75.0 168.1 228.0 22.4 21.6 17.8 16.3 14.7 Acre sub-district 48.7 78.4 112.8 252.4 335.5 31.2 31.7 26.7 24.5 21.5 Haifa district 27.4 48.0 68.8 159.5 237.5 17.6 19.4 16.3 15.5 15.3 Haifa sub-district 9.1 18.6 24.8 53.1 90.8 5.9 7.5 5.9 5.2 5.8 Ḥaderah sub-district 18.3 29.4 44.0 106.4 148.7 11.7 11.9 10.4 10.3 9.5 Central district 16.1 26.9 39.1 101.4 185.1 10.3 10.9 9.2 9.8 11.9 Sharon sub-district 10.4 17.4 24.7 57.2 84.2 6.6 7.0 6.8 5.5 5.4 Petaḥ Tikvah sub-district 3.0 4.7 7.3 21.8 45.4 1.9 1.9 1.7 2.1 2.9 Ramleh sub-district 2.6 4.4 6.7 20.6 34.5 1.7 1.8 1.6 2.0 2.2 Reḥovot sub-district 0.1 0.4 0.5 1.9 21.0 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 1.4 Tel Aviv district 3.6 6.7 8.0 25.4 68.9 2.3 2.8 1.9 2.5 4.4 Southern district 15.4 18.6 27.5 102.2 202.0 9.9 7.5 6.5 9.9 13.0 Ashkelon sub-district 2.4 0.3 0.4 8.1 34.2 1.6 0.1 0.1 0.8 2.2 Beersheba sub-district 13.0 18.3 27.1 94.2 167.7 8.3 7.4 6.4 9.1 10.8 Total 156.0 247.2 422.7 1,030.4 1,556.2 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 was still frequent. The fertility rate remained extremely high (eight or nine children to each woman on the average). Only among the Christian Arabs have signs of increasing birth control appeared in recent years. Emigration was practically nil. Under the impact of all these facts, the natural increase of Arabs in Israel has been very high by international standards, and the Arab population doubled itself between 1948 and 1967. Table: Non-Jews in Israel by Religion gives some details on the changes in the non-Jewish population of Israel classified by religion. Its structure by sex is well balanced and the age structure is very young. Table: Non-Jews in Israel by District shows the geographical distribution of the non-Jewish population by regions. While the Muslim population has largely retained its rural character, the Christian population is largely urban. On the whole, the geographical distribution of the non-Jewish population is very different from that of the Jews; but there is an increasing intermingling of the two populations, as many non-Jews, while still residing in their areas, go out to work in Jewish towns and villages. Population of the "West Bank" and Gaza Strip Between the Two Wars The population of Judea and Samaria (called "the West Bank" under Jordanian rule) increased very considerably in 1948 due to the large influx of refugees, but the population increase was very limited in the period between 1948 and 1967. Fertility was high (more or less on the level of eight children per woman), but mortality declined very little, and it may be reckoned to have been almost three times that of the Arabs in Israel at the end of the period. The West Bank remained prevalently rural and largely underdeveloped. Consequently, a considerable emigration developed toward Amman and other more developed regions of the East Bank, the Arab oil states (such as Kuwait, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia), and, to some extent, to overseas countries. As a consequence of the Six-Day War there was a considerable efflux of refugees, mainly from the Jericho region. As a result of all these factors, the population of the West Bank after the Six-Day War was probably only a little larger than it had been in 1948. The population of the Gaza Strip increased very considerably in 1948 owing to the mass influx of refugees, who were largely settled in refugee camps. This increased still further the non-rural character of the population. Natural increase in the Gaza Strip was probably similar to that of the West Bank, but emigration was smaller, and the total increase of population was therefore higher. Due to these factors the density of population in the Gaza Strip is very high compared with that of the West Bank. Population of Administered Territories, 1967–2002 In 1967 and 1968 there was considerable emigration from these territories, mainly toward Jordan and other Arab states, which has brought about some decline in the population. This movement   Map 3. Settlements with Jewish population numbering over 10,000, 2004. Map 3. Settlements with Jewish population numbering over 10,000, 2004.   has practically stopped, however, and the population has begun to increase, due to a considerable excess of births over deaths. At the end of 1969 the population of Judea and Samaria was 601,000 and of the Gaza Strip 337,000. The economic condition of the population of the administered territories has very considerably improved. This, and Map 4. Israel population density per sq. km. 1948. The sub-district boundaries are those of 1969. Based on data from Statistical Abstract of Israel, 1970. Map 4. Israel population density per sq. km. 1948. The sub-district boundaries are those of 1969. Based on data from Statistical Abstract of Israel, 1970.   the extended network of medical and social services explain the quick reduction of its mortality during the period under survey. As fertility has remained high, the natural increase has grown. Despite some emigration from Judea and Samaria in the past few years, the size of population has increased considerably, from 581,700 at the beginning of 1969 to 699,600   Map. 5. Israel population density per sq. km. 2004. The sub-district boundaries are those of 1969. Based on data from Statistical Abstract of Israel, 2005. Map. 5. Israel population density per sq. km. 2004. The sub-district boundaries are those of 1969. Based on data from Statistical Abstract of Israel, 2005.   at the end of 1980 in Judea and Samaria, and from 355,900 to 431,500 in the Gaza Strip and Northern Sinai. The number of Jews living in the administered territories was estimated at the end of 1977 as 4,400 in Judea and Samaria, 3,500 in the Gaza Strip and Sinai and 3,000 in the Golan Heights. In 2002 it was estimated that 203,700 lived in the administered territories, about 7,000 of them in the Gaza Strip (evacuated by the Israelis in 2005). (Roberto Bachi) -BIBLIOGRAPHY: JEWISH AND NON-JEWISH POPULATION: Census of Palestine (1931, 1933); Survey of Palestine, 3 vols. (1946); Statistical Abstracts of Palestine (1936–45); Israel, Central Bureau of Statistics, Statistical Abstracts of Israel (1950–2003); idem, Special Publications, nos. 36 and 53 (Registration of Population Nov. 8, 1948); no. 194 (Marriages of Jews in Israel 1947–62); no. 242 (Projection of the Population in Israel up to 1985); no. 268 (Vital Statistics 1965–66); no. 262 (Internal Migration of Jews in Israel 1965–1966); no. 276 (Demographic Characteristics of the Jewish Population in Israel 1965–67); idem, Publication no. 42 (Main Data of the Census 1961); nos. 36 and 39 (Census 1961, Families in Israel); R. Bachi, in: Proceedings, World Population Conference (1954); idem, in: Challenge of Development (1958), 41–80; idem, in: JJSO, 8 (1966), 142–9; idem, in: International Symposium on Automation of Population Register System, Proceedings (1967); idem, in: Sydney Conference of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (1967); R. Bachi and J. Matras, in: Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, 40 (1962); R. Bachi, Ha-Nohag ba-Nissu'in u-va-Yeludah be-Kerev ha-Shekhavot ha-Shonot shel ha-Yishuv ve-Hashpa'ato al Atido (1944); Din ve-Ḥeshbon shel ha-Va'adah li-Ve'ayot ha-Yeludah Muggash le-Rosh ha-Memshalah (1966); D.H.K. Amiram and A. Shachar, Development Towns in Israel (1969). R. Bachi: The Population of Israel (1977); appeared also in the international series of Population Monographs of CICRED, Paris; idem, Population Trends of World Jewry (1976); official publications of the Central Bureau of Statistics, Jerusalem, and especially: Statistical Abstract of Israel; Population and Housing 1972 Census Series; Monthly Bulletins of Statistics. JEWISH COMMUNITIES AND INTERCOMMUNAL PROBLEMS: I. Ben-Zvi, The Exiled and the Redeemed (1961); idem, Israel under Ottoman Rule 15171917 (1960), also in: L. Finkelstein, The Jews, 1 (19603), 602–89; D. and M. Hacohen, Our People (1969); A.M. Luncz, Jerusalem, 1 (Eng., 1882), 20–114; H. Mizraḥi, Yehudei Paras… (1959); R.H. Hacohen, Avanim ba-Ḥomah (1970); A. Ben-Jacob, Yehudei Bavel… (1965); idem, Kehillot Yehudei Kurdistan (1961); idem, Yalkut Minhagim: Miminhagei Shivtei Yisrael (1967); D. Bensimon-Donath, Immigrants d' Afrique du Nord en Israel. Evolution et Adaptation (1970); S.N. Eisenstadt, Israeli Society (1967), incl. bibl.; S.N. Eisenstadt, R. Bar Yosef and Ch. Adler, Integration and Development in Israel (1970), incl. bibl.; M. Sicron, Immigration to Israel 19481953 (1957); A.A. Weinberg, Immigration and Belonging (1961); J. Shuval, Immigrants on the Threshold (1963). ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: S. Della-Pergola, "The Global Context of Migration to Israel," in: E. Leshern and J. Shuval (eds.), Immigration to Israel (1998); idem, "World Jewish Population 2001," in: American Jewish Year Book, 101 (2001); E. Deritz and Baras (eds), Studies in the Fertility of Israel, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Hebrew University (1992); Z. Soleel, Migrants from the Promised Land (1986); M. Sicron, "Ukhlusiyyat Yisra'elMe'afyenim u-Megamot," in: Demografiyyah (2004); S. DellaPergola, "Demografiyyah Yehudit, Uvdot, Sikkuyim, Etgarim," in: Report of the Jewish People Policy Planning Institute (2003); Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, Sikrei Ko'aḥ Adam (2001, 2003); idem, Indikatorim le-Mispar Toshevei Yisr'ael be-Ḥul (1992); idem, Zirmei Hagirah shel Yisra'elim le-Ḥuẓ le-Areẓ; R. Lamdani, Ha-Yeridah mi-Yisra'el, in: Ra'yon le-Kalkalah, 20:116 (1983); Ministry of Health, Beri'ut be-Yisra'elNetunim Nivharim (2001); E. Sabbatello, "Ha-Yeridah min ha-Areẓ u-Tekhunoteha," in: Ba-Tefuẓot u-va-Golah, 19 (1978).   ISRAEL PLACE LIST (2004) – PLACES OF JEWISH HABITATION IN ISRAEL AND THE ADMINISTERED TERRITORIES - A – Amana - G – Gadna - H – Herut - H – Histadrut - HH – Ha-Ichud ha-Kehilati - HI – Hitahadut ha-Ikkarim - IH – Ihud Hakla'i - IK – Ihud ha-Kevuzot ve-ha-Kibbutzim - KA – Ha-Kibbutz ha-Artzi (Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir) - KD – Ha-Kibbutz ha-Dati - KM – Ha-Kibbutz ha-Me'uhad - M – Mapam - MH – Hamerkaz ha-Hakla'i - OZ – Ha-Oved ha-Ziyyoni - PAI – Po'alei Agudat Israel - PM – Ha-Po'el ha-Mizrachi - TKM – Tenua Kibbutzit Mehuhedet - TM – Tenu'at ha-Moshavim NOTES: Geographical Region: The sign "67+" indicates a settlement beyond the pre-1967 borders. Year of Founding: Where the year is not indicated, the settlement is ancient. Form of Settlement: Only the present form of settlement is given. Affiliation: Only the present affiliation is given. Municipal Status: RC – the settlement is represented in the regional council indicated. (RC) – the settlement belongs to the area of the regional council, but is not represented in it. No. of Inhabitants: The sign ‥ indicates that the population figures are not available. land of "" population Name Geographical Region Year of Founding Settlement Form Affiliation Municipal Status No. of inhabitants 31 Dec. 2004 Acre (Akko) Town municipality 45,553 thereof 11,810 non-Jews Adamit Western Upper Galilee 1958 Kibbutz KA RC Sultam Zor 106 Adanim Southern Sharon 1950 Moshav RC RC Ha-Yarkon 428 Adderet Judean Foothills (Adullam Region) 1961 Moshav TM RC Matteh Yehudah 513 Addirim Jezreel Valley (Taanach Region) 1956 Moshav TM RC Ha-Gilboa 222 Adi Western Lower Galilee (Shefaram region) 1980 Urban Community RC Jezreel Valley 1,705 Adora Southern Hebron Mountains; 67+ 1983 Rural Community H RC Hebron Mountain 186 Afek Acre 1939 Kibbutz KM RC Na'aman 429 Afik Golan Heights; 67+ 1967 Kibbutz IK RC Golan 235 Afikim Kinneret Valley 1932 Kibbutz IK RC Jordan Valley 985 Afulah (Ir Yizre'el) Jezreel Valley 1925 Urban Settlement local council 38,864 Agur Southern Judean Foothills 1950 Moshav TM RC Matteh Yehudah 331 Aḥi'ezer Coastal Plain (Lod Region) 1950 Moshav PM RC Lod Plain 1,285 Aḥihud Acre Plain 1950 Moshav TM RC Na'aman 678 Aḥisamakh Coastal Plain (Lod Region) 1950 Moshav TM RC Modi'im 1,076 Aḥituv Central Sharon 1951 Moshav TM RC Ḥefer Plain 775 Aḥuzzam Southern Coastal Plain (Lachish Region) 1950 Moshav OZ RC Lachish 411 Aḥvah Southern Coastal Plain Urban Community RC Naḥal Sorek 246 Ale Zahav Samaria; 67+ 1982 Rural Community H RC Samaria 429 Alfe Menashe Samaria; 67+ 1983 Urban Community local council 5,433 Allonei Abba Southern Lower Galilee 1948 Moshav Shittufi OZ RC Kishon 317 Allonei ha-Bashan Golan Heights; 67+ 1981 Moshav Shittufi PM RC Golan 251 Allonei Yiẓḥak Manasseh Hills 1949 Youth Village OZ (RC) Manasseh 208 Allon ha-Galil Jezreel Valley (Shefaram region) 1980 Urban Community TM RC Jezreel Valley 899 Allonim Jezreel Valley 1938 Kibbutz KM RC Kishon 537 Allon Shevut Hebron Hills; 67+ 1971 Rural Center PM RC Etzyon Bloc 3,229 Almagor Kinneret Valley 1961 Moshav TM RC Jordan Valley 219 Almah Eastern Upper Galilee 1949 Moshav PM RC Merom ha-Galil 727 Almog Dead Sea Region; 67+ 1977 Kibbutz IK RC Megilot 142 Almon Southern Samaria; 67+ 1982 Rural Community A RC Matteh Benjamin 739 Alumim Northwestern Negev (Besor Region) 1966 Kibbutz PM RC Azzatah 380 Alummah Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1965 Rural Center (RC) Shafir 531   land of "" population Alummot (Bitanyah) Kinneret Valley 1941 Kibbutz IK RC Jordan Valley 251 Amaẓyah Lachish (Adoraim) Region 1955 Moshav Shittufi H RC Lachish 137 Amir Ḥuleh Valley 1939 Kibbutz KA RC Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 552 Amirim Eastern Upper Galilee 1950 Moshav TM RC Merom ha-Galil 469 Amkah Acre Plain 1949 Moshav TM RC Ga'aton 549 Ammi'ad Eastern Upper Galilee (Hazor 1946 Kibbutz IK RC Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 426   Region)           Ammikam Iron Hills (Northwestern Samaria) 1950 Moshav H RC Allonah 509 Amminadav Jerusalem Hills 1950 Moshav TM RC Matteh Yehudah 611 Ammi'oz Northwestern Negev (Besor Region) 1957 Moshav TM RC Eshkol 224 Amukka Upper Galilee 1980 Community   RC Merom ha-Galil 211 Ani'am Golan Heights; 67+ 1978 Moshav Shittufi TM RC Golan 379 Arad Northeastern Negev 1961 Urban Settlement – local council 23,477 Arbel Eastern Lower Galilee 1949 Moshav TM RC Ha-Galil ha-Tahton 333 Argaman Lower Jordan Valley; 67+ 1968 Moshav H RC Jordan Valley 166 Ariel Central Samaria; 67+ 1978 Urban Settlement municipality 16,414 Arsuf Sharon 1995 Urban Community RC Ḥof ha-Sharon 127 Arugot Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1949 Moshav TM RC Be'er Tuviyyah 731 Aseret Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1954 Rural Center – RC Gederot 1,099 Asfar (Meiẓad) Etzyon Bloc; 67+ 1983 Rural Community PAI RC Etzyon Bloc 275 Ashalim Central Negev 1976 Moshav Shitufi IK RC Ramat ha-Negev 233 Ashdod Southern Coastal Plain 1955 City municipality 196,903 Ashdot Ya'akov Kinneret Valley 1933 Kibbutz IK RC Jordan Valley 552 Ashdot Ya'akov Kinneret Valley 1933 Kibbutz KM RC Jordan Valley 350 Ashkelon Southern Coastal Plain – City municipality 105,088 Ateret Western Samaria; 67+ 1981 Rural Community A RC Matteh Benjamin 350 Athlit Carmel Coast 1904 Urban Settlement local council 4,438 Avdon Western Upper Galilee 1952 Moshav TM RC Ma'aleh ha-Galil 474 Avi'el Northern Sharon (Ḥaderah Region) 1949 Moshav H RC Allonah 417 Avi'ezer Judean Foothills 1958 Moshav PM RC Matteh Yehudah 513 Avigedor Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1950 Moshav TM RC Be'er Tuviyyah 646 Aviḥayil Central Sharon 1932 Moshav TM RC Ḥefer Plain 1,133 Avital Jezreel Valley (Taanach Region) 1953 Moshav TM RC Ha-Gilboa 439 Avivim Eastern Upper Galilee 1960 Moshav TM RC Merom ha-Galil 443 Avnei Eitan Golan Heights; 67+ 1978 Moshav PM RC Golan 337 Avnei Ḥefeẓ Samaria; 67+ 1990 Urban Community A 1,038 Avtalyon Northern Lower Galilee 1987 Urban Community HH RC Misgav 311 Ayanot Coastal Plain (Rishon le-Zion Region) 1930 Agricultural School – – 388 Ayyelet ha-Shaḥar Ḥuleh Valley 1918 Kibbutz IK Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 1,271 Azaryah Judean Foothills 1949 Moshav TM RC Gezer 753 Azor Coastal Plain (Tel Aviv Region) 1948 Urban Settlement local council 9,993 Azri'el Southern Sharon (Kefar Sava Region) 1951 Moshav PM RC Hadar ha-Sharon 515 Azrikam Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1950 Moshav TM RC Be'er Tuviyyah 1,020 Baḥan Central Sharon 1953 Kibbutz IK RC Ḥefer Plain 246 Balfouriyyah Jezreel Valley 1922 Moshav TM RC Yizre'el 293 Barak Jezreel Valley (Taanach Region) 1956 Moshav TM RC Ha-Gilboa 251 Baram Eastern Upper Galilee 1949 Kibbutz KA RC Merom ha-Galil 462 Bareket Coastal Plain (Petaḥ Tikvah Region) 1952 Moshav PM RC Modi'im 1,124 Bar Giora Jerusalem Hills 1950 Moshav H RC Matteh Yehudah 378 Barkai Iron Hills (Northwestern Samaria) 1949 Kibbutz KA RC Manasseh 341 Barkan Western Samaria; 67+ 1981 Urban Community H 1,215   land of "" population Bat Ayin Etzyon Bloc; 67+ 1989 Rural Community A RC Etzyon Bloc 796 Bat Hadar Southern Coastal Plain 1995 Urban Community RC Ḥof Askhelon 378 Bat Ḥefer Central Sharon 1996 Urban Community RC Ḥefer Plain 5,081 Bat Shelomo Manasseh Hills 1889 Moshav HI RC Ḥof ha-Karmel 387 Bat Yam Coastal Plain (Tel Aviv Region) 1926 City municipality 130,389 Be'eri Northwestern Negev (Eshkol Region) 1946 Kibbutz KH RC Eshkol 759 Be'erotayim Coastal Plain (Ḥefer Valley) 1949 Moshav TM RC Ḥefer Plain 583 Be'erot Yiẓḥak Coastal Plain (Petaḥ Tikvah Region) 1948 Kibbutz PM RC Modi'im 416 Be'er Orah Southern Arabah Valley 1950 Youth Camp G (RC) Ḥevel Eilot Beersheba (Be'er Sheva) Northern Negev (1948) City municipality 184,500 Be'er Tuviyyah Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1930 Moshav TM RC Be'er Tuviyyah 769 Be'er Ya'akov Coastal Plain (Lod Region) 1907 Urban local council 8,906 Beka'ot Northern Jordan Valley; 67+ 1972 Moshav IH RC Jordan Valley 152 Beko'a Judean Foothills 1951 Moshav TM RC Matteh Yehudah 492 Ben Ammi Acre Plain 1949 Moshav TM RC Ga'aton 461 Benayah Southern Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1949 Moshav TM RC Brenner 770 Bene-Berak Coastal Plain (Tel Aviv Region) 1924 City municipality 142,334 Benei Atarot Coastal Plain (Petaḥ Tikvah Region) 1948 Moshav TM RC Modi'im 600 Benei Ayish Southern Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1958 Village – RC Ḥevel Yavneh 7,659 Benei Darom Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1949 Moshav Shittufi PM RC Ḥevel Yavneh 332 Benei Deror Southern Sharon 1946 Moshav Shittufi TM RC Hadar ha-Sharon 1,117 Benei Re'em Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1949 Moshav PAI RC Naḥal Sorek 978 Benei Yehuda Golan Heights; 67+ 1972 Rural Community RC Golan 971 Benei Zion Southern Sharon (Herzliyyah Region) 1947 Moshav IH RC Ḥof ha-Sharon 835 Ben Shemen Coastal Plain (Lod Region) 1921 Youth Village (RC) Modi'im 628 Ben Shemen Coastal Plain (Lod Region) 1952 Moshav TM RC Modi'im 584 Ben Zakkai Southern Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1950 Moshav PM RC Ḥevel Yavneh 624 Berakhah Samaria; 67+ 1983 Urban Settlement A 970 Berekhyah Southern Coastal Plain (Ashkelon Region) 1950 Moshav TM RC Ḥof Ashkelon 893 Beror Ḥayil Southern Coastal Plain (Ashkelon Region) 1948 Kibbutz KM RC Sha'ar ha-Negev 459 Berosh Northern Negev (Gerar Region) 1953 Moshav TM RC Benei Shimon 209 Bet Alfa Harod Valley 1922 Kibbutz KA RC Ha-Gilboa 556 Bet Aryeh Western Samaria; 67+ 1981 Urban Settlement local council 3,446 Bet Arif Coastal Plain (Lod Region) 1951 Moshav TM RC Modi'im 547 Betar Illit Judea; 67+ 1985 Urban Settlement municipality 24,895 Bet Berl Southern Sharon 1947 Educational Center H (RC) Ha-Sharon ha-Tikhon 250 Bet Dagan Coastal Plain (Lod Region) 1948 Urban Settlement local council 5,352 Bet El Northern Judea; 67+ 1977 Urban Community RC Matteh Benjamin 4,763 Bet Elazari Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1948 Moshav TM RC Brenner 989 Bet Ezra Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1950 Moshav TM RC Be'er Tuviyyah 918 Bet Gamli'el Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1949 Moshav PM RC Ḥevel Yavneh 830 Bet Guvrin Southern Judean Foothills 1949 Kibbutz KM RC Yo'av 239 Bet ha-Aravah Dead Sea Region 1980 Kibbutz TKM RC Megillot 69 Bet ha-Emek Acre Plain 1949 Kibbutz IK RC Ga'aton 447 Bet ha-Gaddi Northern Negev (Gerar Region) 1949 Moshav PM RC Azzatah 642   land of "" population Bet Ḥagai Southern Hebron Mountains; 67+ 1984 Rural Community A 429 Bet ha-Levi Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1945 Moshav TM RC Ḥefer Plain 551 Bet Hanan Coastal Plain (Rishon le-Zion Region) 1930 Moshav TM RC Gan Raveh 537 Bet Hananyah Northern Sharon (Ḥaderah Region) 1950 Moshav TM RC Ḥof ha-Karmel 607 Bet Ḥashmonai Judean Foothills 1972 Rural Community RC Gezer 914 Bet ha-Shittah Harod Valley 1935 Kibbutz KM RC Ha-Gilboa 871 Bet Ḥerut Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1933 Moshav TM RC Ḥefer Plain 651 Bet Ḥilkiyyah Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1953 Moshav PAI RC Naḥal Sorek 438 Bet Hillel Ḥuleh Valley 1940 Moshav TM RC Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 577 Bet Ḥoron Northwestern Judea; 67+ 1977 Rural Community RC Matteh Benjamin 825 Bet Kamah Northern Negev (Gerar Region) 1949 Kibbutz KA RC Benei Shimon 220 Bet Keshet Eastern Lower Galilee 1944 Kibbutz KM RC Ha-Galil ha-Taḥton 254 Bet Leḥem ha-Gelilit Southern Lower Galilee 1948 Moshav TM RC Kishon 617 Bet Me'ir Judean Hills 1950 Moshav PM RC Matteh Yehudah 561 Bet Neḥemyah Northern Judean Foothills (Lod Region) 1950 Moshav OZ RC Modi'im 689 Bet Nekofah Jerusalem Hills 1949 Moshav TM RC Matteh Yehudah 433 Bet Nir Southern Coastal Plain (Lachish Region) 1955 Kibbutz KA RC Yo'av 279 Bet Oren Mount Carmel 1939 Kibbutz KM RC Ḥof ha-Karmel 306 Bet Oved Coastal Plain (Rishon le-Zion Region) 1933 Moshav TM RC Gan Raveh 313 Bet Rabban Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1946 Yeshivah KD RC Ḥevel Yavneh 586 Bet Rimon Central Lower Galilee 1977 Kibbutz KD RC Lower Galilee 250 Bet-Shean Beth-Shean Valley – Urban Settlement – local council 16,039 Bet She'arim Jezreel Valley 1936 Moshav TM RC Kishon 508 Bet-Shemesh (formerly Hartuv) Judean Foothills – Urban Settlement – municipality 61,931 Bet Shikmah Southern Coastal Plain (Ashkelon Region) 1950 Moshav TM RC Ḥof Ashkelon 684 Bet Uzzi'el Judean Foothills (Lod Region) 1956 Moshav PM RC Gezer 484 Bet Yannai Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1933 Moshav IH RC Ḥefer Plain 395 Bet Yehoshu'a Southern Sharon (Netanyah Region) 1938 Moshav OZ RC Ḥof ha-Sharon 744 Bet Yiẓḥak (Sha'ar Ḥefer) Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1940 Rural Settlement – RC Ḥefer Plain 1,606 Bet Yosef Beth-Shean Valley 1937 Moshav TM RC Beth-Shean Valley 348 Bet Zayit Jerusalem Hills 1949 Moshav TM RC Matteh Yehudah 1,191 Bet Zera Kinneret Valley 1927 Kibbutz KA RC Jordan Valley 721 Bet Ẓevi Carmel Coast 1953 Educational Institute – (RC) Ḥof ha-Karmel 510 Beẓet Acre Plain 1949 Moshav TM RC Sullam Ẓor 332 Binyaminah (Givat Ada) Northern Sharon (Ḥaderah Region) 1922 Urban Settlement – local council 9,765 Biranit Western Upper Galilee 1964 Rural Settlement – (RC) Ma'aleh ha-Galil Biriyyah Eastern Upper Galilee 1945 Rural Settlement – RC Merom ha-Galil 780 Bitan Aharon Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1936 Moshav IH RC Ḥefer Plain 633 Bitḥah Northwestern Negev (Besor Region) 1950 Moshav TM RC Merḥavim 683 Biẓẓaron Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1935 Moshav TM RC Be'er Tuviyyah 900 Boẓrah Southern Sharon (Kefar Sava Region) 1946 Moshav IH RC Ḥof ha-Sharon 745 Burgetah Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1949 Moshav TM RC Ḥefer Plain 890 Bustan ha-Galil Acre Plain 1948 Moshav IH RC Ga'aton 433 Caesarea Northern Coastal Plain 1977 Urban Settlement local council 4,022   land of "" population Dafnah Ḥuleh Valley 1939 Kibbutz KM RC Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 551 Daliyyah Manasseh Hills 1939 Kibbutz KA RC Megiddo 738 Dalton Eastern Upper Galilee 1950 Moshav PM RC Merom ha-Galil 698 Dan Ḥuleh Valley 1939 Kibbutz KA RC Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 408 Daverat Jezreel Valley 1946 Kibbutz IK RC Yizre'el 278 Deganim (Merkaz Shapira) Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1948 Rural Center – (RC) Shafir 2,910 Deganyah (Deganiyyah) Alef Kinneret Valley 1909 Kibbutz IK RC Jordan Valley 560 Deganyah (Deganiyyah) Bet Kinneret Valley 1920 Kibbutz IK RC Jordan Valley 540 Dekel Western Negev 1982 Moshav IH RC Eshkol 95 Devir(ah) Northern Negev (Beersheba Region) 1951 Kibbutz KA RC Benei Shimon 373 Devorah Jezreel Valley (Taanach Region) 1956 Moshav TM RC Ha-Gilboa 227 Dimonah Negev Hills 1955 City – municipality 33,676 Dishon Eastern Upper Galilee 1953 Moshav OZ RC Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 390 Dolev Northern Judea Mountain 1983 Rural Community A RC Matteh Benjamin 963 Dor Carmel Coast 1949 Moshav TM RC Ḥof ha-Karmel 341 Dorot Southern Coastal Plain (Ashekelon Region) 1941 Kibbutz IK RC Sha'ar ha-Negev 457 Dovev Eastern Upper Galilee 1963 Moshav TM RC Merom ha-Galil 430 Efrat Etzyon Bloc; 67+ 1980 Town local council 7,273 Eilat (Elath) Southern Negev 1951 Town – municipality 44,538 Eilon Western Upper Galilee 1938 Kibbutz KA RC Sullam Ẓor 631 Eilot Southern Arabah Valley 1962 Kibbutz KM RC Ḥevel Eilot 270 Ein Ayyalah Carmel Coast 1949 Moshav TM RC Ḥof ha-Karmel 703 Ein Gev Kinneret Valley 1937 Kibbutz IK RC Jordan Valley 520 Ein ha-Emek Manasseh Hills 1944 Rural Settlement – RC Megiddo 625 Ein ha-Ḥoresh Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1931 Kibbutz KA RC Ḥefer Plain 721 Ein ha-Mifraẓ Zebulun Valley 1938 Kibbutz KA RC Na'aman 670 Ein ha-Naẓiv Beth-Shean Valley 1946 Kibbutz KD RC Beth-Shean Valley 510 Ein ha-Sheloshah Northwestern Negev (Besor Region) 1950 Kibbutz OZ RC Eshkol 333 Ein ha-Shofet Manasseh Hills 1937 Kibbutz KA RC Megiddo 720 Ein Hod Mount Carmel 1954 Artist's Village – (RC) Ḥof ha-Karmel 472 Ein Iron Northern Sharon (Ḥaderah Region) 1934 Moshav TM RC Manasseh 414 Ein Karmel Carmel Coast 1947 Kibbutz KM RC Ḥof ha-Karmel 401 Ein Sarid Southern Sharon (Kefar Sava Region) 1950 Rural Settlement – RC Hadar ha-Sharon 1,180 Ein Shemer Northern Sharon (Ḥaderah Region) 1927 Kibbutz KA RC Manasseh 761 Ein Vered Southern Sharon (Kefar Sava Region) 1930 Moshav TM RC Hadar ha-Sharon 1,006 Ein Ya'akov Western Upper Galilee 1950 Moshav TM RC Ma'aleh ha-Galil 544 Ein Zivan Golan Heights; 67+ 1968 Kibbutz KM RC Golan 214 Ein Ẓurim Southern Coastal Plain (Shafir Region) 1949 Kibbutz KD RC Shafir 537 Eitan Southern Coastal Plain (Lachish Region) 1955 Moshav PM RC Shafir 363 Eitanim Jerusalem Hills 1952 Hospital – (RC) Matteh Yehudah 200 Elad Eastern Sharon 1988 Urban Settlement local council 22,600 Elazar Etzyon Bloc; 67+ 1975 Moshav PM RC Etzyon Bloc 993 Eli Samaria; 67+ 1984 Urban Settlement A RC Matteh Benjamin 2,308 Eli′ad (El Al) Golan Heights; 67+ 1968 Moshav PM RC Golan 247 Elifaz Arabah Valley 1982 Kibbutz TKM RC Eilot 45 Elifelet Eastern Upper Galilee (Hazor Region) 1949 Moshav TM RC Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 476   land of "" population El-Rom Golan Heights; 67+ 1971 Kibbutz TKM RC Golan 267 Elishama Southern Sharon 1951 Moshav TM RC Ha-Yarkon 875 Elkanah Northern Samaria; 67+ 1977 Urban Settlement local council 2,983 Elkosh Western Upper Galilee 1949 Moshav TM RC Ma'aleh ha-Galil 354 Elon Moreh Samaria; 67+ 1979 Urban Community A 1,152 Elyakhin Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1950 Rural Settlement – RC Ḥefer Plain 2,561 Elyakim Manasseh Hills 1949 Moshav TM RC Megiddo 637 Elyashiv Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1933 Moshav HI RC Ḥefer Plain 452 Emunim Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1950 Moshav TM RC Be'er Tuviyyah 694 Enav Samaria; 67+ 1981 Rural Community A RC Shomron 468 Enat Coastal Plain (Petaḥ Tikvah Region) 1925 Kibbutz IK RC Mifalot Afek 655 En-Dor Eastern Lower Galilee 1948 Kibbutz KA RC Yizre'el 723 En-Gedi Dead Sea Region 1953 Kibbutz IK RC Tamar 584 En-Harod Harod Valley 1921 Kibbutz IK RC Ha-Gilboa 549 En-Harod Harod Valley 1921 Kibbutz KM RC Ha-Gilboa 763 En-Tamar Dead Sea Region 1982 Moshav TM RC Tamar 149 Erez Southern Coastal Plain (Ashkelon Region) 1949 Kibbutz IK RC Sha'ar ha-Negev 324 Eshar Central Lower Galilee 1989 Community RC Misgav 392 Eshbal Central Lower Galilee 1979 Kibbutz TKM RC Misgav 54 Eshbol Northern Negev (Gerar Region) 1955 Moshav TM RC Merḥavim 244 Eshel ha-Nasi Northern Negev (Besor Region) 1952 Agricultural School – (RC) Merḥavim 397 Eshkolot Southern Hebron Mountains; 67+ 1982 Rural Community A RC Hebron Mountain 231 Eshtaol Judean Foothills 1949 Moshav TM RC Matteh Yehudah 778 Even Menaḥem Western Upper Galilee 1960 Moshav TM RC Ma'aleh ha-Galil 301 Even Sappir Jerusalem Hills 1950 Moshav TM RC Matteh Yehudah 630 Even Shemu'el Southern Coastal Plain (Lachish Region) 1956 Rural Center – RC Shafir 516 Even Yehudah Southern Sharon (Netanyah Region) 1932 Rural Settlement – local council 8,991 Even Yiẓḥak (Galed) Manasseh Hills 1945 Kibbutz IK RC Megiddo 401 Evron Acre Plain 1945 Kibbutz KA RC Ga'aton 702 Eyal Southern Sharon (Kefar Sava Region) 1949 Kibbutz KM RC Ha-Sharon ha-Tikhon 387 Eẓ Efrayim Samaria; 67+ 1985 Urban Settlement RC Shomron 627 Ezer Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1966 Rural Center – (RC) Be'er Tuviyyah 970 Ga'ash Southern Sharon (Herzliyyah Region) 1951 Kibbutz KA RC Ḥof ha-Sharon 507 Ga'aton Western Upper Galilee 1948 Kibbutz KA RC Ga'aton 41 Gadish Jezreel Valley (Taanach Region) 1956 Moshav TM RC Ha-Gilboa 275 Gadot Eastern Upper Galilee (Hazor Region) 1949 Kibbutz KM RC Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 371 Galon Southern Judean Foothills 1946 Kibbutz KA RC Yo'av 307 Gan ha-Darom Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1953 Moshav IH RC Gederot 352 Gan ha-Shomron Northern Sharon (Ḥaderah Region) 1934 Rural Settlement – RC Manasseh 638 Gan Ḥayyim Southern Sharon (Kefar Sava Region) 1935 Moshav TM RC Ha-Sharon ha-Tikhon 666 Gannei Am Southern Sharon (Kefar Sava Region) 1934 Moshav – RC Ha-Yarkon 235 Gannei Tikvah Coastal Plain (Petaḥ Tikvah Region) 1953 Urban Settlement – local council 11,970 Gannei Yehudah Coastal Plain (Petaḥ Tikvah Region) 1951 Moshav IH RC Mifalot Afek Gannei Yoḥanan (Gannei Yonah) Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1950 Moshav TM RC Gezer 593   land of "" population Gan Ner Gilboa Mountain 1987 Urban Settlement RC Ha-Gilboa 2,599 Gannot Hadar Southern Sharon (Netanyah Region) 1964 Rural Settlement – RC Ha-Sharon ha-Ẓefoni 498 Gan Shelomo (Kevuẓat Schiller) Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1927 Kibbutz IK RC Brenner 411 Gan Shemu'el Northern Sharon (Ḥaderah Region) 1913 Kibbutz KA RC Manasseh 829 Gan Sorek Coastal Plain (Rishon le-Zion Region) 1950 Moshav TM RC Gan Raveh 323 Gan Yavneh Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1931 Rural Settlement – local council 13,970 Gan Yoshiyyah Central Sharon (Ḥefer Valley) 1949 Moshav TM RC Hefer Plain 561 Gannot Coastal Plain (Lod Region) 1953 Moshav IH RC Emek Lod 480 Gat Southern Coastal Plain (Lachish Region) 1942 Kibbutz KA RC Yo'av 378 Gat Rimmon Coastal Plain (Petaḥ Tikvah Region) 1926 Rural Settlement – RC Mifalot Afek 201 Gazit Southeastern Lower Galilee 1948 Kibbutz KA RC Yizre'el 570 Ge'ah Southern Coastal Plain (Ashkelon Region) 1949 Moshav TM RC Ḥof Ashkelon 534 Ge'alyah Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1948 Moshav TM RC Gan Raveh 1,095 Gederah Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1884 Urban Settlement – local council 13,643 Gefen Southern Judean Foothills 1955 Moshav PM RC Matteh Yehudah 315 Gelil Yam Southern Sharon (Ḥerzliyyah Region) 1943 Kibbutz KM RC Ḥof ha-Sharon 321 Gerofit Southern Arabah Valley 1963 Kibbutz IK RC Ḥevel Eilot 325 Gesher Kinneret Valley 1939 Kibbutz IK RC Jordan Valley 472 Gesher ha-Ziv Acre Plain 1949 Kibbutz IK RC Sullam Ẓor 663 Geshur Golan Heights; 67+ 1971 Kibbutz KA RC Golan 192 Ge'ulei Teiman Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1947 Moshav PM RC Ḥefer Plain 298 Ge'ulim Southern Sharon 1945 Moshav TM RC Ḥefer Plain 749 Geva Harod Valley 1921 Kibbutz IK RC Ha-Gilboa 548 Geva Binyamin (Adam) Judea; 67+ 1984 Rural Community A RC Matteh Benjamin 2,032 Geva Karmel Carmel Coast 1949 Moshav TM RC Ḥof ha-Karmel 704 Gevaram Southern Coastal Plain (Ashkelon Region) 1942 Kibbutz KM RC Ḥof Ashkelon 307 Gevat Jezreel Valley 1926 Kibbutz KM RC Kishon 664 Gevim Southern Coastal Plain (Ashkelon Region) 1947 Kibbutz IK RC Sha'ar ha-Negev 363 Gevulot Northwestern Negev (Besor Region) 1943 Kibbutz KM RC Eshkol 233 Gezer Judean Foothills 1945 Kibbutz IK RC Gezer 356 Gibbethon Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1933 Moshav – RC Brenner 279 Gidonah Harod Valley 1949 Rural Settlement – RC Ha-Gilboa 168 Gilat Northern Negev (Gerar Region) 1949 Moshav TM RC Merḥavim 826 Gilgal Lower Jordan Valley; 67+ 1970 Kibbutz KM RC Bikat ha-Yarden 164 Gilon Lower Galilee 1980 Rural Community H RC Misgav 952 Gimzo Judean Foothills 1950 Moshav PAI RC Modi'im 190 Ginnaton Coastal Plain (Lod Region) 1949 Moshav TM RC Modi'im 648 Ginnegar Jezreel Valley 1922 Kibbutz IK RC Yizre'el 442 Ginnosar Kinneret Valley 1937 Kibbutz KM RC Jordan Valley 488 Gita Galilee 1980 Urban Community MH 225 Gittit Lower Jordan Valley; 67+ 1973 Moshav H RC Bikat ha-Yarden 161 Givat Adah-Binyaminah Northern Sharon (Ḥaderah Region) 1903 Rural Settlement – local council Givat Avni Lower Galilee 1991 Urban Settlement RC Lower Galilee 2,010 Givat Brenner Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1928 Kibbutz KM RC Brenner 1,186 Givat Ela Jezreel Valley 1988 Urban Community RC Jezreel Valley 1,680 Givat ha-Sheloshah Coastal Plain (Petaḥ Tikvah Region) 1925 Kibbutz KM RC Mifalot Afek 428   land of "" population Givat Ḥayyim Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1932 Kibbutz IK RC Ḥefer Plain 805 Givat Ḥayyim Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1932 Kibbutz KM RC Ḥefer Plain 919 Givat Ḥen Southern Sharon 1933 Moshav TM RC ha-Yarkon 336 Givat Ko'aḥ Judean Foothills 1950 Moshav TM RC Matteh Yehudah 478 Givat Nili Northwestern Iron Hills 1953 Moshav H RC Allonah 445 Givat Oz Jezreel Valley 1949 Kibbutz KA RC Megiddo 344 Givat Shapira Southern Sharon 1958 Moshav IH RC Ḥefer Plain 168 Givat Shemu'el Coastal Plain (Petaḥ Tikvah Region) 1942 Urban Settlement – local council 17,409 Givat Ye'arim Jerusalem Hills 1950 Moshav TM RC Matteh Yehudah 993 Givat Yeshayahu Judean Foothills (Adullam Region) 1958 Moshav OZ RC Matteh Yehudah 363 Givat Yo'av Golan Heights 1968 Moshav TM RC Golan 398 Givat Ze′ev Judea Mountains; 67+ 1983 Urban Settlement local council 10,635 Givatayim Coastal Plain (Tel Aviv Region) 1922 City – municipality 47,948 Givati Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1950 Moshav TM RC Be'er Tuviyyah 752 Givolim Northern Negev (Gerar Region) 1952 Moshav PM RC Azzatah 268 Givon Ḥadashah Judean Hills; 67+ 1980 Urban Community RC Matteh Benjamin 1,179 Givot Bar Northern Negev 2003 Urban Community RC Beni Shimeon 66 Givot Zaid Jezreel Valley 1943 Rural Settlement – RC Kishon Gizo Judean Foothills 1968 Rural Settlement RC Matte Yehudah 190 Gonen Eastern Upper Galilee (Hazor Region) 1951 Kibbutz IK RC Ha-Galil ha Elyon 310 Goren Western Upper Galilee 1950 Moshav TM RC Ma'aleh ha-Galil 425 Gorenot ha-Galilee Northwestern Upper Galilee 1980 Regional Center RC Ma′ale Yosef 174 Ha-Bonim Carmel Coast 1949 Moshav Shittufi TM RC Ḥof ha-Karmel 271 Hadar Am Central Sharon (Ḥefer Valley) 1933 Rural Settlement – RC Ḥefer Plain 460 Ḥaderah Northern Sharon (Ḥaderah Region) 1890 Town – municipality 75,283 Hadid Northern Judean Foothills 1950 Moshav PM RC Modi'im 556 Ḥad Nes Golan Heights; 67+ 1989 Rural Community H RC Golan 439 Hagor Southern Sharon (Kefar Sava Region) 1949 Moshav TM RC Mifalot Afek 615 Ha-Gosherim Ḥuleh Valley 1949 Kibbutz KM RC Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 508 Ḥafeẓ Ḥayyim Southern Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1944 Kibbutz PAI RC Naḥal Sorek 429 Ha-Ḥoterim Carmel Coast 1948 Kibbutz KM RC Ḥof ha-Karmel 499 Ḥaifa Mt. Carmel and Zebulun Valley – City – municipality 268,251 thereof 25,065 non-Jews Ḥalamish Southern Samaria; 67+ 1977 Rural Community RC Matte Benjaim 931 Ḥaluẓ Lower Galilee 1985 Urban Community MH RC Misgav 352 Ḥamadyah Beth-Shean Valley 1942 Kibbutz IK RC Beth-Shean 343 Ha-Ma'pil Northern Sharon 1945 Kibbutz KA RC Ḥefer Plain 496 Ḥamrah Lower Jordan Valley 1971 Moshav – RC Bikat ha-Yarden 125 Ḥanitah Western Upper Galilee 1938 Kibbutz IK RC Sullam Ẓor 440 Ḥanni'el Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1950 Moshav TM RC Ḥefer Plain 774 Ha-Ogen Central Sharon (Ḥefer Valley) 1947 Kibbutz KA RC Ḥefer Plain 538 Ha-On Kinneret Valley 1949 Kibbutz IK RC Jordan Valley 170 Har Adar Judea 1986 Urban Community local council 2,074 Har Amasa Judean Desert 1983 Rural Settlement RC Tamar Ḥarashim Upper Galilee 1980 Rural Settlement RC Misgav 179 Harduf Jezreel Valley 1982 Kibbutz TKM RC Jezreel Valley 385 Harel Judean Foothills 1948 Kibbutz KA RC Matteh Yehudah 146 Har Giloh Judea Hills 1973 Rural Community 371 Ḥaruẓim Southern Sharon 1951 Rural Settlement – RC Ḥof ha-Sharon 662 Hashmonaim Judea 1985 Rural Settlement A RC Matteh Benjamin 2,235 Ha-Solelim Western Lower Galilee 1949 Kibbutz OZ RC Kishon 697   land of "" population Ḥavaẓẓelet ha-Sharon Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1935 Moshav IH RC Ḥefer Plain 286 Ha-Yogev Jezreel Valley 1949 Moshav TM RC Yizre'el 543 Ḥaẓav Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1949 Moshav TM RC Be'er Tuviyyah 880 Ḥaẓerim Northern Negev (Beersheba Region) 1946 Kibbutz IK RC Benei Shimon 795 Ḥaẓevah Central Arabah Valley 1965 Moshav TM RC Tamar 419 Ḥazon Eastern Lower Galilee 1969 Moshav PM RC Merom ha-Galil 358 Ḥaẓor Ashdod Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1946 Kibbutz KA RC Be'er Tuviyyah 535 Ha-Zore'a Jezreel Valley 1936 Kibbutz KA RC Megiddo 917 Ha-Zore'im Eastern Lower Galilee 1939 Moshav PM RC Ha-Galil ha-Taḥton 424 Ḥaẓor ha-Gelilit Eastern Upper Galilee (Hazor Region) 1953 Urban Settlement – local council 8,431 Ḥefẓi-Bah Harod Valley 1922 Kibbutz KM RC Ha-Gilboa 393 Ḥeleẓ Southern Coastal Plain (Ashkelon Region) 1950 Moshav TM RC Hof Ashkelon 433 Ḥemdat Lower Jordan Valley 1980 Rural Community A RC Bikat ha-Yarden 120 Ḥemed Coastal Plain (Lod Region) 1950 Moshav PM RC Emek Lod 551 Ḥerev le-Et Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1947 Moshav IH RC Ḥefer Plain 727 Hermesh Northern Samaria 1982 Rural Community H RC Shomron 229 Ḥerut Southern Sharon (Kefar Sava Region) 1930 Moshav TM RC Hadar ha-Sharon 1,028 Herzliyyah Southern Sharon 1924 City – municipality 83,638 Ḥever Jezreel Valley (Taanach Region) 1958 Rural Center – (RC) Ha-Gilboa 382 Ḥibbat Ẓion Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1933 Moshav HI RC Ḥefer Plain 458 Hila Upper Galilee 1980 Rural Community RC Ma′ale Yosef 490 Ḥinanit Western Samaria; 67+ 1981 Rural Community MH RC Shomron 707 Ḥispin Golan Heights; 67+ 1974 Regional Center RC Golan 1,262 Hod ha-Sharon Southern Sharon (Kefar Sava Region) 1924 Urban Settlement – municipality 41,746 Hodiyyah Southern Coastal Plain (Ashkelon Region) 1949 Moshav TM RC Hof Ashkelon 544 Ḥofit Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain 1955 Rural Settlement – RC Ḥefer Plain 753 Ḥoglah Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1933 Moshav TM RC Ḥefer Plain 487 Ḥolon Coastal Plain (Tel Aviv Region) 1933 City – municipality 165,778 Ḥoreshim Southern Sharon (Kefar Sava Region) 1955 Kibbutz KA RC Mifalot Afek 224 Hosa′aya Jezreel Valley 1981 Urban Settlement PM RC Jezreel Valley 1,328 Ḥosen Western Upper Galilee 1949 Moshav H RC Ma'aleh ha-Galil 657 Ḥukkok Eastern Lower Galilee 1945 Kibbutz KM RC Jordan Valley 266 Ḥulatah Huleh Valley 1937 Kibbutz KM RC Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 368 Ḥuldah Judean Foothills 1930 Kibbutz IK RC Gezer 313 Idan Aravah Valley 1980 Moshav TM RC Mid Aravah 232 Ilaniyyah Eastern Lower Galilee 1902 Moshav IH RC Ha-Galil ha-Taḥton 477 Immanuel Samaria; 67+ 1983 Urban Settlement local council 2,585 Itamar Samaria; 67+ 1984 Rural Community A RC Shomron 600 Jerusalem Jerusalem Hills – City – municipality 706,368 thereof 37,061 non-Jews Kabri Acre Plain 1949 Kibbutz KM RC Ga'aton 756 Kadarim Upper Galilee 1980 Kibbutz TKM RC Upper Galilee 117 Kadimah-Ẓoran Southern Sharon (Kefar Yonah Region) 1933 Urban Settlement – local council 15,709   land of "" population Kadoorie Eastern Lower Galilee 1931 Agricultural School – (RC) Ha-Galil ha-Taḥton 200 Kaḥal Upper Galilee 1980 Moshav TM 353 Kalanit Upper Galilee 1981 Moshav PM RC Merom ha-Galil 222 Kalyah Dead Sea Region; 67 + 1968 Kibbutz IK RC Megillot 260 Kammon Bet-Hakerem Valley 1980 Rural Community RC Misgav 553 Kanaf Golan Heights 1991 Moshav TM RC Golan 285 Kannot Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1952 Agricultural School – (RC) Be'er Tuviyyah 284 Karmei Yosef Judean Foothills 1984 Moshavah HI RC Gezer 1,873 Karmei Ẓur Etzyon Bloc; 67+ 1984 Rural Community PM RC Etzyon Bloc 665 Karmel Southern Hebron Mountains; 67+ 1981 Moshav A RC Hebron Mountain 319 Karmi'el Western Lower Galilee 1964 Urban Settlement – municipality 43,507 Karmiyyah Southern Coastal Plain (Ashkelon Region) 1950 Kibbutz KA RC Ḥof Ashkelon 302 Karnei Shomron Western Samaria; 67+ 1978 Urban Settlement local council 6,170 Kaẓir-Ḥarish Iron Valley 1982 Urban Settlement local council 3,669 Kaẓrin Golan Heights; 67+ 1977 Town local council 6,357 Kedar Judea Mountains; 67+ 1985 Rural Community H RC Etzyon Bloc 658 Kedmah Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1946 Rural Settlement – (RC) Yo'av 90 Kedummim Central Samaria; 67+ 1977 Urban Settlement local council 3,010 Kefar Adummim Judean Desert; 67+ 1979 Rural Community A RC Matteh Benjamin 2,006 Kefar Aḥim Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1949 Moshav TM RC Be'er Tuviyyah 467 Kefar Aviv Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1951 Moshav IH RC Gederot 606 Kefar Avodah Southern Sharon (Herzliyyah Region) 1942 Educational Institution – (RC) Hadar ha-Sharon 400 Kefar Azar Coastal Plain (Tel Aviv Region) 1932 Moshav TM RC Ono 545 Kefar Azzah Southern Coastal Plain (Ashkelon Region) 1951 Kibbutz IK RC Sha'ar ha-Negev 690 Kefar Barukh Jezreel Valley 1926 Moshav TM RC Kishon 263 Kefar Bialik Zebulun Valley (Haifa Bay Area) 1934 Moshav IH RC Zebulun 783 Kefar Bilu Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1932 Moshav TM RC Gezer 1,041 Kefar Bin Nun Judean Foothill 1952 Moshav IH RC Gezer 398 Kefar Blum Ḥuleh Valley 1943 Kibbutz IK RC Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 497 Kefar Dani'el (Bet Ḥever) Coastal Plain (Lod Region) 1949 Moshav Shittufi TM RC Modi'im 268 Kefar Eẓyon Hebron Hills; 67 + 1967 Kibbutz KD RC Etzyon Bloc 416 Kefar Galim Carmel Coast 1952 Agricultural School – – 272 Kefar Gidon Jezreel Valley 1923 Moshav PAI RC Yizre'el 199 Kefar Giladi Ḥuleh Valley 1916 Kibbutz IK RC Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 489 Kefar Glickson Northern Sharon (Ḥaderah Region) 1939 Kibbutz OZ RC Manasseh 285 Kefar Ḥabad Coastal Plain (Lod Region) 1949 Moshav – RC Emek Lod 4,538 Kefar ha-Ḥoresh Southern Lower Galilee 1933 Kibbutz IK RC Kishon 421 Kefar Ḥananaya Upper Galilee 1990 Urban Settlement PM RC Merom ha-Galil 373 Kefar ha-Makkabbi Zebulun Valley (Haifa Bay Area) 1936 Kibbutz IK RC Zebulun 295 Kefar ha-Nagid Coastal Plain (Rishon le-Zion Area) 1949 Moshav TM RC Gan Raveh 936 Kefar ha-Nasi Eastern Upper Galilee (Hazor Region) 1948 Kibbutz IK RC Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 490 Kefar ha-No'ar Ha-dati Zebulun Valley (Haifa Bay area) 1937 Agricultural School – RC Zebulun 571 Kefar ha-Rif Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1956 Moshav IH RC Yo'av 586 Kefar ha-Ro'eh Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1934 Moshav PM RC Ḥefer Plain 421   land of "" population Kefar Ḥaruv Golan Heights; 67+ 1974 Kibubtz IK RC Golan 239 Kefar Ḥasidim Alef Zebulun Valley (Haifa Bay area) 1924 Moshav – RC Zebulun 570 Kefar Ḥasidim Bet Zebulun Valley (Haifa Bay area) 1950 Rural Settlement – RC Zebulun 188 Kefar Ḥayyim Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1933 Moshav TM RC Ḥefer Plain 467 Kefar Hess Southern Sharon (Kefar Sava Region) 1933 Moshav TM RC Hadar ha-Sharon 1,037 Kefar Ḥittim Eastern Lower Galilee 1936 Moshav Shittufi TM RC Ha-Galil ha-Taḥton 369 Kefar Jawitz Southern Sharon (Kefar Sava Region) 1932 Moshav PM RC Hadar ha-Sharon 481 Kefar Kisch Eastern Lower Galilee 1946 Moshav TM RC Ha-Galil ha-Taḥton 298 Kefar Maimon Northern Negev (Gerar Region) 1956 Moshav PM RC Azzatah 213 Kefar Malal (formerly Ein Ḥai) Southern Sharon (Kefar Sava Region) 1922 Moshav TM RC Ha-Yarkon 447 Kefar Masaryk Zebulun Valley (Haifa Bay area) 1938 Kibbutz KA RC Zebulun 597 Kefar Menaḥem Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1937 Kibbutz KA RC Yo'av 462 Kefar Monash Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1946 Moshav TM RC Ḥefer Plain 705 Kefar Mordekhai Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1950 Moshav IH RC Gederot 487 Kefar Netter Southern Sharon 1939 Moshav – RC Ḥof ha-Sharon 619 Kefar Pines Northern Sharon (Ḥaderah Region) 1933 Moshav PM RC Manasseh 946 Kefar Rosenwald (Zarit) Western Upper Galilee 1967 Moshav TM (RC) Ma'aleh ha-Galil 241 Kefar Rosh ha-Nikrah Acre Plain 1949 Kibbutz IK RC Sullam Ẓor 535 Kefar Ruppin Beth-Shean Valley 1938 Kibbutz IK RC Beth-Shean Valley 417 Kefar Rut Judean Foothills 1977 Moshav TM RC Modi′in Region 221 Kefar Sava Southern Sharon 1903 Town – municipality 79,771 Kefar Shammai Eastern Upper Galilee 1949 Moshav PM RC Merom ha-Galil 304 Kefar Shemaryahu Southern Sharon (Herzliyyah Region) 1937 Rural Settlement – local council 1,790 Kefar Shemu'el Judean Foothills 1950 Moshav OZ RC Gezer 581 Kefar Silver Southern Coastal Plain (Ashkelon Region) 1957 Agricultural School – (RC) Ḥof Ashkelon 322 Kefar Syrkin Coastal Plain (Petaḥ Tikvah Region) 1936 Rural Settlement – RC Mifalot Afek 963 Kefar Szold Ḥuleh Valley 1942 Kibbutz KM RC Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 413 Kefar Tapu'aḥ Samaria; 67+ 1978 Rural Community A RC Shomron 593 Kefar Tavor Eastern Lower Galilee 1901 Rural Settlement – local council 2,375 Kefar Truman Northern Judean Foothills 1949 Moshav TM RC Modi'im 515 Kefar Uriyyah Judean Foothills 1944 Moshav TM RC Matteh Yehudah 424 Kefar Veradim Upper Galilee 1993 Rural Community local council 5,406 Kefar Vitkin Central Sharon (Ḥefer Valley) 1933 Moshav TM RC Ḥefer Plain 1,545 Kefar Warburg Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1939 Moshav TM Be'er Tuviyyah RC 781 Kefar Yeḥezkel Ḥarod Valley 1921 Moshav TM RC Ha-Gilboa 641 Kefar Yehoshu'a Jezreel Valley 1927 Moshav TM RC Kishon 707 Kefar Yonah Southern Sharon 1932 Rural Settlement – local Council 12,351 Kefar Zeitim Eastern Lower Galilee 1950 Moshav TM RC Ha-Galil ha-Tahton 479 Kela Alon Golaln Heights 1984 Rural Community RC Golan 58 Kelaḥim Northern Negev (Gerar Region) 1954 Moshav IH RC Merḥavim 265 Kelil Western Upper Galilee 1979 Rural Community IH RC Matteh Asher 255 Kemehin Central Negev 1988 Moshav TM RC Ramat Negev 161 Keramim Northern Negev 1980 Kibbutz KA RC Benei Shimeon 75 Kerem Ben Zimrah Eastern Upper Galilee 1949 Moshav PM RC Merom ha-Galil 401 Kerem Maharal Mount Carmel 1949 Moshav TM RC Ḥof ha-Karmel 425   land of "" population Kerem Shalom Northwestern Negev (Besor Region) 1956 Kibbutz KA RC Eshkol Kerem Yavneh Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1963 Educational Institution (Yeshivah) PM RC Ḥevel Yavneh 335 Kesalon Judean Hills 1952 Moshav IH RC Matteh Yehudah 325 Keshet Golan Heights; 67+ 1974 Moshav PM RC Golan 501 Keturah Arabah Valley 1973 Kibbutz IH RC Eilot Region 435 Kevuẓat Yavneh Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1941 Kibbutz KD RC Ḥevel Yavneh 1,052 Kidmat Ẓevi Golan Heights; 67+ 1985 Moshav HI RC Golan 341 Kidron Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1949 Moshav TM RC Brenner 1,067 Kinneret Kinneret Valley 1908 Kibbutz IK RC Jordan Valley 625 Kinneret Kinneret Valley 1909 Rural Settlement – local council 503 Kiryat Anavim Jerusalem Hills 1920 Kibbutz IK RC Matteh Yehudah 307 Kiryat Arba Hebron Area; 67+ 1972 Town local council 6,651 Kiryat Ata Zebulun Valley (Haifa Bay area) 1925 Town – municipality 48,930 Kiryat Bialik Zebulun Valley (Haifa Bay area) 1934 Urban Settlement – municipality 36,755 Kiryat Ekron Coastal Plain (Rehovot Region) 1948 Urban Settlement – local council 9,719 Kiryat Gat Southern Coastal Plain (Lachish Region) 1954 Urban Settlement – municipality 47,820 Kiryat Ḥaroshet Zebulun Valley (Haifa Bay area) 1935 Rural Settlement – local council Kiryat Malakhi Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1951 Urban Settlement – municipality 19,391 Kiryat Motzkin Zebulun Valley (Haifa Bay area) 1934 Urban Settlement – municipality 39,526 Kiryat Netafim Samaria; 67+ 1983 Rural Community PM RC Shomron 419 Kiryat Ono Coastal Plain (Tel Aviv Region) 1939 Urban Settlement – municipality 24,791 Kiryat Shemonah Ḥuleh Valley 1950 Urban Settlement – municipality 22,006 Kiryat Tivon Southern Lower Galilee (Tivon Hills) 1937 Urban Settlement – local council 13,567 Kiryat Yam Zebulun Valley (Haifa Bay area) 1946 Urban Settlement – municipality 39,976 Kiryat Ye'arim Jerusalem Hills 1952 Educational Institution – (RC) Matteh Yehudah 249 Kishor Central Upper Galilee 1980 Kibbutz and Rural Community RC Misgav 71 Kissufim Northwestern Negev (Besor Region) 1951 Kibbutz KM RC Eshkol 170 Kokhav Mikha'el Southern Coastal Plain (Ashkelon Region) 1950 Kibbutz TM RC Ḥof Ashkelon 531 Kokhav ha-Shaḥar Northeastern Judea; 67+ 1977 Rural Community RC Matteh Benjamin 1,365 Kokhav Ya′akov Judea; 67+ 1985 Urban Community A RC Shomron 4,389 Kokhav Yair (Ẓur Yigal) Eastern Sharon 1981 Urban Community local council 11,802 Komemiyyut Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1950 Moshav TM RC Shafir 246 Koranit Northwestern Lower 1982 Rural Community RC Misgav 627 Korazim Upper Galilee 1983 Moshav HI RC Mevo'ot Ḥermon 430 Lachish (Lakhish) Southern Coastal Plain (Lachish Region) 1955 Moshav TM RC Lachish 480 Lahav (Ẓiklag) Northern Negev (Beersheba Region) 1952 Kibbutz KA RC Benei Shimon 393 Lahavot ha-Bashan Ḥuleh Valley 1846 Kibbutz KA RC Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 437 Lahavot Ḥavivah Northern Sharon (Ḥaderah Region) 1949 Kibbutz KA RC Manasseh 257 Lapid Judean Lowland 1996 Urban Settlement 2,228 Lapidot Central Upper Galile 1978 Moshav TM RC Ma′ale Yosef 161 Lavi Eastern Lower Galilee 1949 Kibbutz KD RC Ha-Galil ha-Taḥton 671 Lavon Lower Galilee 1980 Rural Community RC Misgav 183 Liman Acre Plain 1949 Moshav TM RC Sullam Ẓor 593 Li On Judean Foothills (Adullam Region) 1960 Rural Center – (RC) Matteh Yehudah Livnim Upper Galilee 1982 Rural Community TM RC Merom ha-Galil 402   land of "" population Lod (Lydda) Coastal Plain (Lod Region) – Town – municipality 66,572 thereof 14,661 non-Jews Lod Airport Coastal Plain (Lod Region) (1961) Airport and Industrial Area – – Lohamei ha-Getta'ot Acre Plain 1949 Kibbutz KM RC Ga'aton 468 Lotan Aravah Valley 1983 Kibbutz KM RC Eilot 188 Lotem Lower Galilee 1978 Kibbutz TKM RC Misgav 430 Luzit Southern Judean Foothills 1955 Moshav TM RC Matteh Yehudah 341 Ma'agen Kinneret Valley 1949 Kibbutz IK RC Jordan Valley 338 Ma'agan Mikha'el Carmel Coast 1949 Kibbutz KM RC Ḥof ha-Karmel 1,331 Ma′aleh Adumim Judea Desert; 67+ 1977 Urban Settlement municipality 28,923 Ma′aleh Amos Etzyon Bloc; 67+ 1981 Rural Community H RC Etzyon Bloc 319 Ma′eleh Efrayim Eastern Samaria; 67+ 1970 Urban Settlement local council 1,456 Ma′aleh Gamla Golan Heights; 67+ 1976 Moshav TM RC Golan 306 Ma'aleh Gilboa Mt. Gilboa 1962 Kibbutz – (RC) Beth-Shean Valley 256 Ma'aleh ha-Ḥamishah Jerusalem Hills 1938 Kibbutz IK RC Matteh Yehudah 340 Ma′aleh Levonah Samaria; 67+ 1983 Rural Community A RC Matteh Benjamin 514 Ma′aleh Mikhmas Judean Desert; 67+ 1981 Rural Community A RC Matteh Benjamin 1.055 Ma′aleh Shomron Samaria; 67+ 1980 Rural Community H RC Shomron 549 Ma'a lot-Tarshiḥah Western Upper Galilee (1957) Urban Settlement – municipality 20,991 thereof 4,447 non-Jews Ma'anit Northern Sharon (Ḥaderah Region) 1942 Kibbutz KA RC Manasseh 467 Ma'as Coastal Plain (Petaḥ Tikvah Region) 1935 Moshav TM RC Mifalot Afek 652 Ma'barot Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1933 Kibbutz KA RC Ḥefer Plain 751 Mabbu'im Northern Negev (Gerar Region) 1958 Rural Center – RC Merḥavim 1,012 Ma'gallim Northern Negev (Gerar Region) 1958 Rural Center – (RC) Azzatah 1,395 Magen Northwestern Negev (Besor Region) 1949 Kibbutz KA RC Eshkol 449 Magen Shaul Jezreel Valley (Taanach Region) 1976 Moshav TM RC Ha-Gilboa 249 Maggal Northern Sharon (Ḥaderah Region) 1953 Kibbutz IK RC Manasseh 509 Magshimim Coastal Plain (Petaḥ Tikvah Region) 1949 Moshav IH RC Mifalot Afek 699 Maḥanayim Eastern Upper Galilee (Hazor Region) (1939) Kibbutz KM RC Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 354 Maḥaneh Yisrael Coastal Plain (Lod Region) 1950 Rural Settlement (under liquidation) Malkishu'a Mount Gilboa 1976 Rehabilitation Institution RC Beit Shean Valley 92 Malkiyyah Eastern Upper Galilee 1949 Kibbutz KM RC Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 323 Manarah Eastern Upper Galilee 1943 Kibbutz KM RC Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 241 Manof Northwestern Lower Galilee 1980 Rural Community IH RC Misgav 556 Manot Western Upper Galilee 1980 Moshav TM RC Ma′aleh Yosef 335 Ma'on Southern Hebron Mountain; 67+ 1981 Rural Community A RC Hebron Mountain 308 Ma'or Northern Sharon (Manasseh Region) 1953 Moshav TM RC Manasseh 742 Ma'oz Ḥayyim Beth-Shean Valley 1937 Kibbutz KM RC Beth-Shean Valley 566 Margaliyyot Eastern Upper Galilee 1951 Moshav TM RC Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 367 Masad Lower Galilee 1983 Rural Community MH RC Lower Galilee 342 Mashabbei Sadeh Negev Hills 1949 Kibbutz KM RC Ramat ha-Negev 450 Mashen Southern Coastal Plain (Ashkelon Region) 1950 Moshav TM RC Ḥof Ashkelon 651 Maslul Northwestern Negev (Besor Region) 1950 Moshav TM RC Merḥavim 343 Massadah Kinneret Region 1937 Kibbutz IK RC Jordan Valley 289 Massu'ah Lower Jordan Valley; 67+ 1970 Moshav OZ RC Bikat ha-Yarden 140 Massu'ot Yiẓḥak Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1949 Moshav Shittufi PM RC Shafir 539 Matan Southern Sharon 1997 Urban Settlement RC Southern Sharon 2,900   land of "" population Matat Northwestern Upper Galilee 1979 Rural Community RC Ma′ale Yosef 182 Mattityahu Judan Hills; 67+ 1981 Moshav PAI 1,347 Matta Judean Hills 1950 Moshav TM RC Matteh Yehudah 528 Mavki'im Southern Coastal Plain (Ashkelon Region) 1949 Moshav Shittufi TM RC Ḥof Ashkelon 225 Ma'yan Barukh Ḥuleh Valley 1947 Kibbutz IK RC Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 252 Ma'yan Ẓevi Mt. Carmel 1938 Kibbutz IK RC Ḥof ha-Karmel 488 Mazkeret Batyah Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1883 Rural Settlement – local council 7,822 Maẓli'aḥ Coastal Plain (Lod Region) 1950 Moshav TM RC Gezer 1,126 Mazor Coastal Plain (Petaḥ Tikvah Region) 1949 Moshav TM RC Modi'im 970 Maẓẓuvah Western Upper Galilee 1940 Kibbutz IK RC Sullam Ẓor 441 Mefallesim Southern Coastal Plain (Ashkelon Region) 1949 Kibbutz IK RC Sha'ar ha-Negev 458 Megadim Carmel Coast 1949 Moshav TM RC Ḥof ha-Karmel 743 Megiddo Jezreel Valley 1949 Kibbutz KA RC Megiddo 326 Meḥaseyah Judean Foothills 1950 Rural Settlement – RC Matteh Yehudah Meḥolah Lower Jordan Valley; 67 + 1968 Moshav – RC 360 Mei Ammi Samaria (Iron Hills) 1963 Kibbutz KA Bikat Ha-Yarden Me'ir Shefayah Mt. Carmel (1923) Agricultural School – RC Ḥof ha-Karmel 417 Meishar Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1950 Moshav IH RC Gederot 501 Meitar Northern Negev 1987 Urban Settlement local council 6,515 Meitav Jezreel Valley (Taanach Region) 1954 Moshav TM RC Ha-Gilboa 347 Mele'ah Jezreel Valley (Taanach Region) 1956 Moshav TM RC Ha-Gilboa 329 Melilot Northern Negev (Gerar Region) 1953 Moshav PM RC Azzatah 248 Menaḥemiyyah Eastern Lower Galilee 1902 Moshav IH local council 1,080 Menuḥah (Vardon) Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1953 Moshav TM RC Lachish 351 Me'onah Western Upper Galilee 1949 Moshav TM RC Ma'aleh ha-Galil 511 Merav Bet Shean Valley 1987 Kibbutz KD RC Bet Shean Valley 366 Merḥav Am Central Negev 2002 Urban Settlement RC Ramat Negev 99 Merḥavyah Harod Valley 1922 Moshav TM RC Yizre'el 658 Merḥavyah Harod Valley 1911 Kibbutz KA RC Yizre'el 724 Merom Golan Golan Heights 1967 Kibbutz KM RC Golan 411 Meron Eastern Upper Galilee – Moshav PM RC Merom ha-Galil 794 Mesillat Zion Judean Foothills 1950 Moshav TM RC Matteh Yehudah 692 Mesillot Beth-Shean Valley 1938 Kibbutz KA RC Beth-Shean Valley 401 Metullah Eastern Upper Galilee 1896 Rural Settlement – local council 1,490 Mevasseret Zion (Ẓiyyon) Jerusalem Hills 1951 Urban Settlement – local council 21,734 Mevo Beitar Jerusalem Hills 1950 Moshav Shittufi H RC Matteh Yehudah 292 Mevo Dotan Northern Samaria; 67+ 1977 Rural Community A RC Shomron 287 Mevo Ḥammah Golan Heights; 67+ 1968 Kibbutz IK RC Golan 325 Mevo Ḥoron Judean Hills; 67 + 1969 – PAI – 827 Mevo Modi'im Judean Foothills 1964 Kibbutz PAI RC Modi'im 152 Meẓadot Yehudah Southern Hebron Mountain 1983 Moshav A RC Hebron Mountain 425 Meiẓar Golan Heights 1981 Kibbutz TKM RC Golan 44 Meẓer Northern Sharon (Ḥaderah Region) 1953 Kibbutz KA RC Manasseh 382 Midrakh Oz Jezreel Valley 1952 Moshav TM RC Megiddo 483 Midreshet Ruppin Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1948 Seminary – – Migdal Kinneret Valley 1910 Rural Settlement – local council 1,470 Migdal ha-Emek Southern Lower Galilee 1952 Urban Settlement – local council 24,760 Migdalim Samaria; 67+ 1983 Rural Community A RC Shomron 151 Migdal Oz Etzyon Bloc; 67+ 1977 Kibbutz KD RC Etzyon Bloc 313 Mikhmannim Lower Galilee 1980 Rural Community RC Misgav 270   land of "" population Mikhmoret Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1945 Moshav and Educational Institution TM RC Ḥefer Plain 1,056 Mikveh Yisrael Coastal Plain (Tel Aviv Region) 1870 Agricultural School – – 747 Misgav Am Eastern Upper Galilee 1945 Kibbutz KM RC Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 242 Misgav Dov Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1950 Moshav H RC Gederot 529 Mishmar Ayyalon Judean Foothills 1949 Moshav M RC Gezer 406 Mishmar David Judean Foothills 1949 Kibbutz IK RC Gezer 234 Mishmar ha-Emek Jezreel Valley 1926 Kibbutz KA RC Megiddo 922 Mishmar ha-Negev Northern Negev (Gerar Region) 1946 Kibbutz KM RC Benei Shimon 581 Mishmar ha-Sharon Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1933 Kibbutz IK RC Ḥefer Plain 459 Mishmar ha-Shivah Central Coastal Plain (Lod Region) 1949 Moshav – RC Emek Lod 677 Mishmar ha-Yarden Eastern Upper Galilee (Hazor Region) (1949) Moshav H RC Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 445 Mishmarot Northern Sharon (Ḥaderah Region) 1933 Kibbutz IK RC Manasseh 253 Mishmeret Southern Sharon (Kefar Sava Region) 1946 Moshav TM RC Hadar ha-Sharon 618 Mivtaḥim Northwestern Negev (Besor Region) 1950 Moshav TM RC Azzatah 314 Mizra Jezreel Valley 1923 Kibbutz KA RC Yizre'el 710 Miẓpeh Eastern Lower Galilee 1908 Rural Settlement – RC Ha-Galil ha-Taḥton 150 Miẓpeh Aviv Lower Galilee 1981 Rural Community RC Misgav 636 Miẓpeh Netofa Lower Galilee 1979 Cooperative Settlment RC Lower Galilee 572 Miẓpeh Ramon Central Negev Hills 1954 Urban Settlement – local council 4,631 Miẓpeh Shalem Dead Sea Region; 67 + 1970 – – – Miẓpeh Yeriho Dead Sea Region 1978 Rural Community A RC Matteh Benjamin 1,469 Modi′in (Makkabim-Re'ut) Central Israel 1996 Urban Settlement municipality 53,079 Modi′in Illit Judea Hills 1996 Urban Settlement local council 27,386 Moledet (B'nai B'rith) Southeastern Lower Galilee 1937 Moshav Shittufi TM RC Ha-Gilboa 192 Moran Northern Lower Galilee 1976 Kibbutz KM RC Misgav 124 Moreshet Northwestern Lower Galilee 1981 Rural Community IH RC Misgav 879 Moẓa Illit Jerusalem Hills 1933 Rural Settlement – RC Matteh Yehudah 827 Moẓa Taḥtit Jerusalem Hills 1894 Rural Settlement – (RC) Matteh Yehudah Na′aleh Southwestern Samaria 1988 Rural Community RC Matteh Benjamin 600 Na'an Coastal Plain (Rehovot Region) 1930 Kibbutz KM RC Gezer 1,169 Na'aran Lower Jordan Valley; 67 + 1970 – – – Naḥalah Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1953 Moshav TM RC Yo'av 385 Nahalal Jezreel Valley 1921 Moshav TM RC 926 Naḥalat Yehudah Coastal Plain (Rishon le-Zion Region) 1914 Rural Settlement – local council Naḥaliel Southwestern Samaria 1984 Rural Community PAI RC Matteh Benjamin 282 Naḥal Golan Golan; 67 + 1967 Kibbutz IK – ‥ Naḥal Oz Northwestern Negev 1951 Kibbutz IK RC Sha'ar ha-Negev 285 Naḥam Judean Foothills 1950 Moshav PM RC Matteh Yehudah Nahariyyah Acre Plain 1934 Town – municipality 49,306 Naḥsholim Carmel Coast 1948 Kibbutz KM RC Ḥof ha-Karmel 392 Naḥshon Judean Foothills 1950 Kibbutz KA RC Matteh Yehudah 380 Naḥshonim Northern Judean Foothills 1949 Kibbutz KA RC Mifalot Afek 305 Naomi Lower Jordan Valley 1982 Moshav TM RC Bikat ha-Yarden 127 Nataf Jerusalem Corridor 1982 Rural Community 390 Natur Golan Heights; 67+ 1980 Kibbutz KA RC Golan   land of "" population Naẓerat Illit Southern Lower Galilee 1957 Urban Settlement – municipality 43,939 thereof 4,848 non-Jews Negbah Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1939 Kibbutz KA RC Yo'av 387 Negohot Southern Hebron Mountain; 67+ 1982 Rural Community   RC Hebron Mountain 135 Neḥalim Coastal Plain (Petaḥ Tikvah Region) 1948 Moshav PM RC Modi'in 1,946 Nehorah Coastal Plain (Lachish Region) 1956 Rural Center – RC Lachish 1,121 Ne'ot Golan Golan Heights; 67+ 1968 Moshav HI RC Golan 291 Ne'ot ha-Kikar Northern Arabah Valley (1970) Moshav Shittufi – RC Tamar 226 Ne'ot Mordekhai Ḥuleh Valley 1946 Kibbutz IK RC Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 481 Ne'ot Semadar Arabah Valley 1982 Kibbutz TKM RC Eilot Region 157 Nes Harim Jerusalem Hills 1950 Moshav TM RC Matteh Yehudah 554 Nesher Zebulun Valley (Haifa Bay area) 1925 Urban Settlement – municipality 21,174 Nes Ẓiyyonah Costal Plain (Rishon le-Zion Region) 1883 Urban Settlement – municipality 27,830 Neta'im Coastal Plain (Rishon le-Zion Region) 1932 Moshav TM RC Gan Raveh 479 Netanyah Southern Sharon 1929 City – municipality 169,415 Netiv ha-Gedud Lower Jordan Valley 1976 Moshav TM RC Bikat ha-Yarden 132 Netiv ha-Lamed He Southern Judean Foothills 1949 Kibbutz KM RC Matteh Yehudah 402 Netiv ha-Shayyarah Acre Plain 1950 Moshav TM RC Ga'aton 444 Netivot Northwestern Negev (Gerar Region) 1956 Urban Settlement – municipality 23,654 Netu'ah Western Upper Galilee 1966 Moshav TM (RC) Ma'aleh ha-Galil 256 Ne'urim Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1953 Educational Institution – (RC) Ḥefer Plain 561 Nevatim Northern Negev (Beersheba Region) 1946 Moshav TM RC Benei Shimon 627 Neveh Ativ Golan Heights; 67+ 1972 Moshav Shittufi OZ RC Golan 167 Neveh Daniel Etzyon Bloc; 67+ 1982 Rural Community PM RC Etzyon Bloc 1,225 Neveh Efrayim (Monosson) Coastal Plain (Petaḥ Tikvah Region) 1953 Rural Settlement – local council   Neveh Eitan Beth-Shean Valley 1938 Kibbutz IK RC Beth-Shean Valley 147 Neveh Ḥarif Arabah Valley 1987 Kibbutz TKM RC Eilot Region 62 Neveh Ilan Jerusalem Hills (1946) – – – 324 Neveh Mivtaḥ Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1950 Moshav TM RC Be'er Tuviyyah 486 Neveh Shalom Judean Mountains 1983 Rural Community   RC Matteh Yehudah 180 thereof 92 non-Jews Neveh Ur Northern Beth-Shean Valley 1949 Kibbutz KM RC Beth-Shean Valley 416 Neveh Ziv Western Upper Galilee 1989 Rural Community   RC Ma'ale Yosef 368 Neveh Yam Carmel Coast 1939 Kibbutz IK RC Hof ha-Karmel 201 Neveh Yamin Southern Sharon (Kefar Sava Region) 1949 Moshav TM RC Ha-Sharon ha-Tikhon 1.048 Neveh Yarak Southern Sharon (Herzliyyah Region) 1951 Moshav TM RC Ha-Yarkon 938 Neẓer Sereni Coastal Plain (Rishon le-Zion Region) 1948 Kibbutz IK RC Gezer 523 Nili Western Samaria 1981 Rural Community A RC Matteh Benjamin 829 Nimrod Golan Heights; 67+ 1981 Rural Community   RC Golan Nir Akiva Northern Negev (Gerar Region) 1953 Moshav TM RC Merḥavim 225 Nir Am Southern Coastal Plain (Ashkelon Region) 1943 Kibbutz IK RC Sha'ar ha-Negev 298 Nir Banim Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1954 Moshav TM RC Shafir 588 Nir David Beth-Shean Valley 1936 Kibbutz KA RC Beth-Shean Valley 530   land of "" population Nir Eliyahu Southern Sharon (Kefar Sava Region) 1950 Kibbutz IK RC Ha-Sharon ha-Tikhon 341 Nir Eẓyon Mt. Carmel 1950 Moshav Shittufi PM RC Ḥof ha-Karmel 830 Nir Gallim Southern Coastal Plain (Yavneh Region) 1949 Moshav Shittufi PM RC Ḥevel Yavneh 563 Nir Ḥen Southern Coastal Plain (Lachish Region) 1955 Moshav TM RC Lachish 341 Nirim Northwestern Negev (Besor Region) 1949 Kibbutz KA RC Eshkol 356 Nir Moshe Northern Negev (Gerar Region) 1953 Moshav TM RC Merḥavim 343 Nirit Southern Sharon 1982 Urban Settlement   RC Southern Sharon 1,068 Nir Oz Northwestern Negev (Besor Region) 1955 Kibbutz KA RC Eshkol 368 Nir Yafeh Jezreel Valley (Taanach Region) 1956 Moshav TM RC Ha-Gilboa 377 Nir Yisrael Southern Coastal Plain (Ashkelon Region) 1949 Moshav OZ RC Ḥof Ashkelon 650 Nir Yiẓḥak (formerly Nirim) Northwestern Negev (Besor Region) (1949) Kibbutz KA RC Eshkol 570 Nir Ẓevi Coastal Plain (Lod Region) 1954 Moshav IH RC Emek Lod 1,005 Niẓẓanah Central Negev 1980 Educational Center     142 Niẓẓanei Oz Southern Sharon (Kefar Yonah Region) 1951 Moshav TM RC Ha-Sharon ha-Zefoni 759 Niẓẓanim Southern Coastal Plain (Ashkelon Region) 1943 Kibbutz OZ RC Hof Ashkelon 360 No'am Southern Coastal Plain (Lachish Region) 1953 Moshav PM RC Shafir 404 Nof Ayalon Judean Lowland 1994 Rural Community   RC Gezer 2,377 Nofekh Coastal Plain (Petaḥ Tikvah Region) 1949 Rural Settlement – RC Modi'im 341 Nofim Samaria; 67+ 1987 Rural Community   RC Shomron 414 Nofit Western Lower Galilee 1987 Rural Community     2,291 Nogah Southern Coastal Plain (Lachish Region) 1955 Moshav TM RC Lachish 332 Nokedim Etzyon Bloc; 67+ 1982 Rural Community A RC Etzyon Bloc 674 Nordiyyah Southern Sharon (Netanyah Region) 1948 Moshav Shittufi H RC Ha-Sharon ha-Ẓefoni 2,104 Odem Golan Heights; 67+ 1976 Moshav Shituffi   RC Golan 93 Ofakim Northwestern Negev (Besor Region) 1955 Urban Settlement – municipality 24,017 Ofer Mount Carmel 1950 Moshav TM RC Ḥof ha-Karmel 367 Ofra Northeastern Judea; 67+ 1973 Rural Community A RC Matteh Benjamin 2,264 Ohad Northwestern Negev (Besor Region) 1969 Moshav TM (RC) Eshkol 219 Olesh Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1949 Moshav TM RC Ḥefer Plain 744 Omen Jezreel Valley (Taanach Region) 1958 Rural Center – (RC) Ha-Gilboa 449 Omer Northern Negev (Beersheba Region) 1949 Rural Settlement – local council 5,995 Omeẓ Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1949 Moshav TM RC Ḥefer Plain 403 Orah Jerusalem Hills 1950 Moshav TM RC Matteh Yehudah 876 Or Akiva Northern Sharon (Ḥaderah Region) 1951 Urban Settlement – municipality 15,772 Oranim Southern Lower Galilee (Tivon Hills) 1951 Kibbutz Seminary – RC Zebulon 211 Or ha-Ganuz Upper Galilee 1989 Rural Community   RC Merom Galilee 364 Or ha-Ner Southern Coastal Plain (Ashkelon Region) 1957 Kibbutz IK RC Sha'ar ha-Negev 382 Orot Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1952 Moshav TM RC Be'er Tuviyyah 407 Or Tal Golan Heights; 67+ 1978 Kibbutz KM RC Golan 258 Or Yehudah Coastal Plain (Tel Aviv Region) 1950 Urban Settlement – municipality 30,071 Oshrat Western Galilee 1983 Rural Community   RC Matteh Asher 567 Otniel Southern Hebron Mountain; 67+ 1983 Rural Community A RC Hebron Mountain 692   land of "" population Ovnat Judea Desert 1983 Rural Community Ozem Southern Coastal Plain (Lachish Region) 1955 Moshav TM RC Lachish 541 Pa'amei Tashaz Northern Negev (Gerar Region) 1953 Moshav TM RC Merḥavim 311 Palmaḥim Coastal Plain (Rishon le-Zion Region) 1949 Kibbutz KM RC Gan Raveh 401 Paran Arabah Valley 1972 Moshav TM   374 Pardes Ḥannah-Karkur Northern Sharon (Ḥaderah Region) (1913) Urban Settlement – local council 29,32 Pardesiyyah Southern Sharon 1942 Rural Settlement – local council 6,073 Parod Eastern Upper Galilee 1949 Kibbutz KM RC Merom ha-Galil 254 Pattish Northern Negev (Besor Region) 1950 Moshav TM RC Merḥavim 671 Pedayah Judean Foothills 1951 Moshav TM RC Gezer 539 Peduyim Northern Negev (Besor Region) 1950 Moshav TM RC Merḥavim 316 Peki'in Ḥadashah Western Upper Galilee 1955 Moshav TM RC Ma'aleh ha-Galil 328 Pelekh Central Upper Galilee 1980 Kibbutz IK RC Misgav Pene Ḥever Southern Hebron Mountain; 67+ 1982 Rural Community A RC Hebron Mountain 377 Perazon Jezreel Valley (Taanach Region) 1953 Moshav TM RC Ha-Gilboa 309 Peri Gan Western Negev 1981 Moshav OZ 125 Pesagot Judea Mountains; 67+ 1981 Rural Community A RC Matteh Benjamin 1,388 Petaḥ Tikvah Coastal Plain (Petaḥ Tikvah Region) 1878 City – municipality 176,230 Petaḥyah Judean Foothills 1951 Moshav OZ RC Gezer 689 Peẓa'el Lower Jordan Valley; 67 + 1970 Moshav – – 215 Porat Southern Sharon (Kefar Sava Region) 1950 Moshav PM RC Hadar ha-Sharon 974 Poriyyah (Kefar Avodah) Eastern Lower Galilee 1955 Moshav – RC Jordan Valley 303 Poriyyah (Neveh Oved) Eastern Lower Galilee 1949 Rural Settlement – RC Jordan Valley 890 Ra'anannah Southern Sharon (Herzliyyah Region) 1921 Urban Settlement – municipality 70,503 Rakefet Lower Galilee 1981 Rural Community TM RC Misgav 701 Ramat David Jezreel Valley 1926 Kibbutz IK RC Kishon 253 Ramat Efal Coastal Plain (Tel Aviv Region) 1969 Rural Settlement – RC Ramat Efal 2,762 Ramat Gan Coastal Plain (Tel Aviv Region) 1921 City – municipality 127,394 Ramat ha-Kovesh Southern Sharon (Kefar Sava Region) 1932 Kibbutz KM RC Ha-Sharon ha-Tikhon 595 Ramat ha-Sharon Southern Sharon (Herzliyyah Region) 1923 Urban Settlement – municipality 35,850 Ramat Magshimim Golan Heights 1968 Moshav Shittufi PM RC Golan 483 Ramat Pinkas Coastal Plain (Tel Aviv Region) 1952 Rural Settlement – RC Ono 521 Ramat Raḥel Jerusalem Hills 1926 Kibbutz IK RC Matteh Yehudah 312 Ramat Raziel Judean Hill 1948 Moshav H RC Matteh Yehudah 425 Ramat Yishai Southern Lower Galilee (Tivon Hills) 1925 Rural Settlement – local council 5,419 Ramat Yoḥanan Zebulun Valley (Haifa Bay area) 1932 Moshav IK RC Zebulun 721 Ramat Ẓevi Southwestern Lower Galilee 1942 Moshav TM RC Ha-Gilboa 400 Ramleh Coastal Plain (Lod Region) – City – municipality 63,46 thereof 13,311 non-Jews Ram On Jezreel Valley (Taanach Region) 1960 Moshav TM RC Ha-Gilboa 596 Ramot Golan Heights; 67+ 1970 Moshav – RC Golan 472 Ramot ha-Shavim Southern Sharon (Kefar Sava Region) 1933 Moshav IH local council 1,139 Ramot Me'ir Coastal Plain (Lod Region) 1949 Moshav Shittufi TM RC Gezer 496 Ramot Menasheh Manasseh Hills 1948 Kibbutz KA RC Megiddo 464 Ramot Naftali Eastern Upper Galilee 1945 Moshav TM RC Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 459   land of "" population Rannen Northern Negev (Besor Region) 1950 Moshav TM RC Merhavim 374 Regavim Manasseh Hills 1948 Kibbutz KM RC Manasseh 256 Regbah Acre Plain 1946 Moshav Shittufi TM RC Ga'aton 579 Reḥan Northwestern Samaria; 67+ 1977 Moshav OZ RC Shomron 148 Reḥov Beth-Shean Valley 1951 Moshav PM RC Beth-Shean Valley 308 Reḥovot Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1890 City – municipality 101,873 Re'im Northwestern Negev 1949 Kibbutz KM RC Eshkol 332 Rekhasim Zebulun Valley (Haifa Bay area) 1957 Urban Settlement – local council 8,272 Reshafim Beth-Shean Valley 1848 Kibbutz KA RC Beth-Shean Valley 344 Retamim Negev Hills 1983 Moshav TM RC Ramat Negev 196 Revadim Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1948 Kibbutz KA RC Yo'av 319 Revaḥah Southern Coastal Plain (Lachish Region) 1953 Moshav PM RC Shafir 738 Revayah Beth-Shean Valley 1952 Moshav PM RC Beth-Shean Valley 225 Revivim Negev (Southern Beersheba Basin) 1943 Kibbutz KM RC Ramat ha-Negev 660 Rimmonim Northeastern Judea; 67+ 1977 Rural Community   RC Matteh Benjamin 536 Rinnatyah Coastal Plain (Lod Plain) 1949 Moshav TM RC Modi'im 795 Rishon le-Zion Coastal Plain (Rishon le-Zion Region) 1882 City – municipality 217,366 Rishpon Southern Sharon (Herzliyyah Region) 1936 Moshav TM RC Ḥof ha-Sharon 823 Roglit Judean Foothills (Adullam Region) 1958 Moshav HI RC Matteh Yehudah Ro'i Lower Jordan Valley; 67+ 1976 Moshav TM RC Bikat ha-Yarden 115 Rosh ha-Ayin Coastal Plain (Petaḥ Tikvah Region) 1950 Urban Settlement – municipality 36,284 Rosh Pinnah Eastern Upper Galilee (Hazor Region) 1882 Rural Settlement – local council 2,298 Rosh Ẓurim Etzyon Bloc; 67+ 1969 Kibbutz KD RC Etzyon Bloc 298 Rotem Lower Jordan Valley 1983 Rural Community RC Bikat ha-Yarden Ruḥamah Southern Coastal Plain (Ashkelon Region) (1944) Kibbutz KA RC Sha'ar ha-Negev 389 Sa'ad Northwestern Negev (Gerar Region) 1947 Kibbutz KD RC Azzatah 555 Sa'ar Acre Plain 1948 Kibbutz KA RC Ga'aton 388 Safed (Ẓefat) Eastern Upper Galilee – Town – municipality 27,327 Sal'it Samaria; 67+ 1977 Moshav H RC Shomron 443 Samar Arabah Valley 1976 Kibbutz IK RC Eilot Region 211 Sansna Southern Hebron Mountain 1998 Rural Community   RC Hebron Mountain 179 Sapir Arabah Valley 1979 Rural Settlement 314 Sarid Jezreel Valley 1926 Kibbutz KA RC Kishon 600 Sasa Eastern Upper Galilee 1949 Kibbutz KA RC Merom ha-Galil 372 Savyon and Ganei Yehudah Coastal Plain (Tel Aviv Region) 1954 Rural Settlement – local council 3,233 Sedeh Boker Central Negev Hills 1952 Kibbutz IK RC Ramat ha-Negev 441 Sedeh Boker (Midrashah) Central Negev Hills 1965 Educational Institution – RC Ramat ha-Negev   Sedeh David Southern Coastal Plain (Lachish Region) 1955 Moshav OZ RC Lachish 406 Sedeh Eli'ezer Ḥuleh Valley 1952 Moshav OZ RC Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 599 Sedeh Eliyahu Beth-Shean Valley 1939 Kibbutz KD RC Beth-Shean Valley 669 Sedeh Ilan Eastern Lower Galilee 1949 Moshav PM RC Ha-Galil ha-Taḥton 354 Sedeh Moshe Southern Coastal Plain (Lachish Region) 1956 Moshav TM RC Lachish 337 Sedeh Naḥum Beth-Shean Valley 1937 Kibbutz KM RC Beth-Shean Valley 351 Sedeh Neḥemyah Ḥuleh Valley 1940 Kibbutz IK RC Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 392 Sedeh Niẓẓan Northwestern Negev (Eskhol Region) 1973 Moshav TM RC Eskhol 275   land of "" population Sedeh Uzziyyah Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1950 Moshav OZ RC Be'er Tuviyyah 1,234 Sedeh Warburg Southern Sharon (Kefar Sava Region) 1938 Moshav IH RC Ha-Sharon ha-Tikhon 1,036 Sedeh Ya'akov Jezreel Valley 1927 Moshav PM RC Kishon 861 Sedeh Yiẓḥak Northern Sharon (Ḥaderah Region) 1952 Moshav M RC Manasseh 491 Sedeh Yo'av Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1956 Kibbutz KA RC Yo'av 199 Sedeh Ẓevi Northern Negev (Gerar Region) 1953 Moshav IH RC Merḥavim 222 Sedei Avraham Western Negev 1981 Moshav TM   171 Sedei Ḥemed Southern Sharon (Kefar Sava Region) 1952 Moshav TM RC Ha-Sharon ha-Tikhon 641 Sedei Terumot Beth-Shean Valley 1951 Moshav PM RC Beth-Shean Valley 418 Sederot Southern Coastal Plain (Ashkelon Region) 1951 Urban Settlement – municipality 19,968 Sedom (Sodom) Dead Sea Region – Industrial Site – – Sedot Mikvah Southern Judean Foothills 1955 Moshav TM RC Matteh Yehudah   Sedot Yam Northern Sharon (Ḥaderah Region) 1940 Kibbutz KM RC Ḥof ha-Karmel 672 Segev Western Lower Galilee 1953 Rural Settlement – – 911 Segullah Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1953 Moshav TM RC Yo'av 342 Senir (Ramat Banias, Kefar Moshe Sharett) Ḥuleh Valley 1967 Kibbutz KA RC Upper Galilee 384 Sha'al Golan Heights; 67+ 1976 Moshav Shituffi H RC Golan 230 Sha'albim Northern Judean Foothills 1951 Kibbutz PAI RC Gezer 1,232 Sha'ar Efrayim Southern Sharon (Kefar Yonah Region) 1953 Moshav TM RC Ha-Sharon ha-Ẓefoni 1,074 Sha'arei Avraham Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1958 Educational Institution – (RC) Naḥal Sorek Sha'arei Tikvah Western Samaria; 67+ 1983 Urban Community   local council 3,685 Sha'ar ha-Golan Kinneret Valley 1937 Kibbutz KA RC Jordan Valley 500 Sha'ar Ḥefer (Beit Yiẓḥak) Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1940 Moshav IH RC Ḥefer Plain 1,606 Sha'ar Menasheh Northern Sharon (Ḥaderah Region) 1949 Rural Settlement – (RC) Manasseh 1,164 Shadmot Devorah Eastern Lower Galilee 1939 Moshav TM RC Ha-Galil ha-Taḥton 402 Shadmot Meḥolah Lower Jordan Valley 1979 Rural Community PM RC Bikat ha-Yarden 517 Shafir Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1949 Educational –   RC Shafir 440 Shaḥar Southern Coastal Plain (Lachish Region) 1955 Moshav TM RC Lachish 485 Shaḥarut Arabah Valley 1985 Rural Community IH RC Eilot 105 Shaked Northern Samaria; 67+ 1981 Rural Community H RC Shomron 509 Shalvah Southern Coastal Plain (Lachish Region) 1952 Moshav PM RC Shafir Sham'a Hebron Mountain 1989 Rural Settlement   RC Hebron Mountain 344 Shamir Ḥuleh Valley 1944 Kibbutz KA RC Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 553 Sharonah Eastern Lower Galilee 1938 Moshav TM RC Ha-Galil ha-Taḥton 468 Sharsheret Northwestern Negev (Gerar Region) 1951 Moshav PM RC Azzatah 283 Shavei Shomron Central Samaria; 67+ 1977 Rural Community   RC Shomron 539 Shavei Zion Acre Plain 1938 Moshav Shittufi IH local council 640 She'ar Yashuv Ḥuleh Valley 1940 Moshav OZ RC Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 342 Shedemah Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1954 Moshav IH RC Gederot 410 Shefayim Southern Sharon (Herzliyyah Region) 1935 Kibbutz KM RC ḥof ha-Sharon 935 Shefer Eastern Upper Galilee 1950 Moshav – RC Merom ha-Galil 252   land of "" population Shekef Lachish Region 1982 Moshav H 468 Shekhanya Northwestern Lower Galilee 1980 Rural Community IH RC Misgav 545 Shelomi Acre Plain 1950 Rural Settlement – local council 5,384 Sheluḥot Beth-Shean Valley 1948 Kibbutz KD RC Beth-Shean Valley 400 Shetulah Western Upper Galilee 1969 Moshav TM RC Ma'aleh ha-Galil 230 Shetulim Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1950 Moshav TM RC Be'er Tuviyyah 1,492 Shezor Western Lower Galilee 1953 Moshav TM RC Merom ha-Galil 359 Shibbolim Northwestern Negev (Gerar Region) 1952 Moshav PM RC Azzatah 316 Shilat Northern Judean Foothills 1977 Moshav TM 360 Shilo Samaria; 67+ 1979 Rural Community A RC Matteh Benjamin 1,825 Sho'evah Judean Hills 1950 Moshav IH RC Matteh Yehudah 468 Shokedah Northwestern Negev (Gerar Region) 1957 Moshav PM RC Azzatah 187 Shomerah Northwestern Upper Galilee 1949 Moshav TM RC Ma'aleh ha-Galil 306 Shomrat Acre Plain 1948 Kibbutz KA RC Ga'aton 348 Shomriyyah Western Negev 1984 Kibbutz KA 75 Shorashim Lower Galilee 1985 Rural Community TM RC Misgav 250 Shoresh Judean Hills 1948 Moshav Shittufi OZ RC Matteh Yehudah 469 Shoshannat ha-Amakim Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1951 Rural Settlement – (RC) Ḥefer Plain 537 Shoshannat ha-Amakim (Ammidar) Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1956 Rural Settlement – RC Ḥefer Plain Shoval Northern Negev (Gerar Region) 1946 Kibbutz KA RC Benei Shimon 566 Shuvah Northwestern Negev (Gerar Region) 1950 Moshav PM RC Azzatah 356 Sifsufah Eastern Upper Galilee 1949 Moshav TM RC Merom ha-Galil Sitriyyah Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1949 Moshav TM RC Gezer 907 Susia Southern Hebron Mountain; 67+ 1983 Rural Community A RC Hebron Mountain 663 Tal El Lower Galilee 1980 Rural Community HH RC Misgav 888 Talmei Bilu Northern Negev (Gerar Region) 1953 Moshav HI RC Merḥavim 323 Talmei Elazar Northern Sharon (Ḥaderah Region) 1953 Moshav HI RC Manasseh 662 Talmei Eliyahu Northwestern Negev 1970 Moshav TM RC Eskhol 194 Talmei Yafeh Southern Coastal Plain (Ashkelon Region) 1950 Moshav Shittufi OZ RC Ḥof Ashkelon 133 Talmei Yeḥi'el Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1949 Moshav TM RC Be'er Tuviyyah 591 Talmon Northwestern Judea Mountain 1989 Rural Community A RC Matteh Benjamin 1,760 Tal Shaḥar Judean Foothills 1948 Moshav TM RC Matteh Yehudah 817 Ta'oz Judean Foothills 1950 Moshav PM RC Matteh Yehudah 441 Tarum Judean Foothills 1950 Moshav PM RC Matteh Yehudah 471 Te'ashur Northern Negev (Gerar Region) 1953 Moshav TM RC Benei Shimon 301 Tefaḥot Upper Galilee 1980 Moshav PM RC Merom Galilee 265 Tekoa Etzyon Bloc; 67+ 1975 Rural Community RC Etzyon Bloc 1,179 Tekumah Northwestern Negev (Gerar Region) 1949 Moshav PM RC Azzatah 446 Tel Adashim Jezreel Valley 1923 Moshav TM RC Yizre'el 580 Telalim Central Negev 1980 Kibbutz TKM 277 Telamim Southern Coastal Plain (Lakhish Region) 1950 Moshav TM RC Lachish 579 Tel Aviv-Jaffa Coastal Plain (Tel Aviv Region) 1909 City – municipality 371,439 thereof 5,399 non-Jews Tel Kazir Kinneret Region 1949 Kibbutz IK RC Jordan Valley 233 Tel Mond Southern Sharon (Kefar Sava Region) 1929 Rural Settlement – local council 8,288 Tel Yiẓḥak (includes Neveh Hadassah) Southern Sharon (Netanyah Region) 1938 Kibbutz OZ RC Ḥof ha-Sharon 699   land of "" population Tel Yosef Harod Valley 1921 Kibbutz IK RC Ha-Gilboa 372 Tene Southern Hebron Mountain 1983 Rural Community A RC Hebron Mountain 538 Tenuvot Southern Sharon 1952 Moshav TM RC Ha-Sharon ha-Ẓefoni 650 Tiberias (Teveryah) Kinneret Valley – Town – municipality 39,944 Tidhar Northern Negev (Gerar Region) 1953 Moshav TM RC Benei Shimon 225 Tifraḥ Northern Negev (Besor Region) 1949 Moshav PAI RC Merḥavim 1,287 Timmurim Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1954 Moshav Shittufi OZ RC Be'er Tuviyyah 644 Timrat Jezreel Valley 1983 Rural Community   RC Jezreel Valley 1,699 Tirat ha-Karmel Carmel Coast 1949 Urban Settlement – municipality 18,862 Tirat Yehudah Coastal Plain (Petaḥ Tikvah Region) 1949 Moshav PM RC Modi'im 734 Tirat Ẓevi Beth-Shean Valley 1937 Kibbutz KD RC Beth-Shean Valley 641 Tirosh Southern Judean Foothills 1955 Moshav PM RC Matteh Yehudah Toḥelet Coastal Plain (Lod Region) 1951 Rural Settlement – RC Emek Lod Tomer Lower Jordan Valley; 67+ 1978 Moshav TM RC Bikat ha-Yarden 296 Tushiyyah Northwestern Negev (Gerar Region) 1958 Rural Center – RC Azzatah 748 Tuval Central Upper Galilee 1980 Kibbutz IK RC Misgav 187 Vardon Northern Negev 1968 Rural Community   RC Yoav 379 Vered Yeriḥo Jericho Region; 67+ 1980 Moshav IH 161 Udim Southern Sharon (Netanyah Region) 1948 Moshav IH RC Ḥof ha-Sharon 742 Urim Northwestern Negev (Besor Region) 1946 Kibbutz IK RC Merḥavim 403 Ushah Zebulun Valley (Haifa Bay area) 1937 Kibbutz IK RC Zebulun 348 Uzzah Southern Coastal Plain (Lachish Region) 1950 Moshav PM RC Shafir 496 Ya'ad Northwestern Lower Galilee 1975 Moshav TM RC Misgav 556 Ya'af Southern Sharon 1974 Rural Community   RC Southern Sharon 129 Ya'arah Western Upper Galilee 1950 Moshav TM RC Ma'aleh ha-Galil 538 Yad Binyamin Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1949 Rural Center – RC Gan Raveh 390 Yad Ḥannah (Me'uḥad) Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1950 Kibbutz KM RC Ḥefer Plain 116 Yad Hannah (Semol) Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1950 Kibbutz – RC Ḥefer Plain Yad ha-Shemonah Jerusalem Hills 1978 Moshav Shituffi; 85 Yad Mordekhai Southern Coastal Plain (Ashkelon Region) 1943 Kibbutz KA RC Ḥof Ashkelon 724 Yad Natan Southern Coastal Plain (Lachish Region) 1953 Moshav OZ RC Lachish 294 Yad Rambam Coastal Plain (Lod Region) 1955 Moshav PM RC Gezer 892 Yafit Lower Jordan Valley; 67+ 1980 Moshav TM RC Bikat ha-Yarden 101 Yagel Coastal Plain (Lod Region) 1950 Moshav TM RC Emek Lod 668 Yagur Zebulun Valley (Haifa Bay area) 1922 Kibbutz KM RC Zebulun 1,116 Yahel Aravah Vaelley 1976 Kibbutz TKM RC Eilot 196 Yakhini Northwestern Negev 1950 Moshav TM RC Sha'ar ha-Negev 432 Yakir Western Samaria; 67+ 1981 Rural Community A RC Shomron 960 Yakum Southern Sharon (Herzliyyah Region) 1947 Kibbutz KA RC Ḥof ha-Sharon 537 Yanuv Southern Sharon (Kefar Yonah Region) 1950 Moshav TM RC Ha-Sharon ha-Ẓefoni 753 Yardennah Beth-Shean Valley 1953 Moshav TM RC Beth-Shean Valley 440 Yarḥiv Southern Sharon (Kefar Sava Region) 1949 Moshav TM RC Ha-Sharon ha-Tikhon 713 Yarkonah Southern Sharon (Kefar Sava Region) 1932 Moshav TM RC Ha-Yarkon 312 Yashresh Coastal Plain (Lod Region) 1950 Moshav TM RC Gezer 692 Yas'ur Zebulun Valley (Haifa Bay area) 1949 Kibbutz KA RC Na'aman 266 Yated Western Negev 1981 Moshav TM 178   land of "" population Yavne'el Eastern Lower Galilee 1901 Rural Settlement – local council 2,747 Yavneh (Jabneh) Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1950 Urban Settlement – municipality 31,830 Yaziz Southern Coastal Plain (Lachish Region) 1950 Moshav TM RC Lachish 778 Yedidah Judean Hills 1964 Educational Institution – (RC) Matteh Yehudah 162 Yedidyah Central Sharon (Ḥefer Plain) 1935 Moshav TM RC Ḥefer Plain 540 Yeḥi'am Western Upper Galilee 1946 Kibbutz KA RC Ga'aton 348 Yehud Coastal Plain (Petaḥ Tikvah Region) (1949) Urban Settlement – municipality 25,124 Yeroḥam Central Negev Hills 1951 Urban Settlement – local council 8,749 Yesha Northwestern Negev (Besor Region) 1957 Moshav TM RC Eshkol 155 Yesodot Judean Foothills 1948 Moshav Shittufi PAI RC Naḥal Sorek 377 Yesud ha-Ma'aleh Ḥuleh Valley 1883 Rural Settlement – local council 1,219 Yevul Western Negev 1987 Moshav IH 149 Yifat Jezreel Valley (1926) Kibbutz IK RC Kishon 750 Yiftaḥ Eastern Upper Galilee 1948 Kibbutz IK RC Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 477 Yinnom Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1952 Moshav TM RC Be'er Tuviyyah 867 Yiron Eastern Upper Galilee 1949 Kibbutz KM RC Merom ha-Galil 351 Yish'i Judean Foothills 1950 Moshav PM RC Matteh Yehudah 553 Yitav Southeastern Samaria; 67+ 1976 Kibbutz KM 141 Yiẓhar Samaria; 67+ 1983 Rural Community A RC Shomron 534 Yizre'el Mt. Gilboa 1948 Kibbutz IK RC Ha-Gilboa 464 Yodefat Western Lower Galilee 1960 Kibbutz – RC Na'amon 369 Yokne'am Jezreel Valley 1935 Moshav IH RC Megiddo 1.050 Yokne'am (Illit) Jezreel Valley 1950 Urban Settlement – local council 17,787 Yonatan Golan Heights; 67+ 1976 Moshav Shituffi PM RC Golan 344 Yoshivyah Northwestern Negev (Besor Region) 1950 Moshav PM RC Azzatah Yotvatah Southern Arabah Valley 1951 Kibbutz IK RC Ḥevel Eilot 601 Yuval Ḥuleh Valley 1952 Moshav TM RC Ha-Galil ha-Elyon 359 Yuvalim Lower Galilee 1987 Rural Community IH RC Misgav 999 Ẓafririm Southern Judean Foothills (Adullam Region) 1958 Moshav TM RC Matteh Yehudah 275 Ẓafriyyah Coastal Plain (Lod Region) 1949 Moshav PM RC Emek Lod 622 Zano'ah Judean Foothills 1950 Moshav PAI RC Matteh Yehudah 404 Zavdi'el Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1950 Moshav PAI RC Shafir 414 Ẓe'elim Northwestern Negev (Besor Region) 1947 Kibbutz IK RC Eshkol 434 Zeitan Coastal Plain (Lod Region) 1950 Moshav TM RC Emek Lod 845 Zekharyah Southern Judean Foothills 1950 Moshav TM RC Matteh Yehudah 669 Ẓelafon Judean Foothills 1950 Moshav TM RC Matteh Yehudah 582 Zeraḥyah Southern Coastal Plain (Malakhi Region) 1950 Moshav PM RC Shafir Zeru'ah Northwestern Negev (Gerar Region) 1953 Moshav PM RC Azzatah 246 Ẓerufah Carmel Coast 1949 Moshav TM RC Ḥof ha-Karmel 765 Ẓeviyyah Central Lower Galilee 1979 Rural Community KM RC Misgav 282 Zikhron Ya'akov Mt. Carmel 1882 Urban Settlement – local council 15,659 Zikim Southern Coastal Plain (Ashkelon Region) 1949 Kibbutz KA RC Ḥof Ashkelon 347 Zimrat Northwestern Negev (Gerar Region) 1957 Moshav PM RC Azzatah 253 Ẓippori Western Lower Galilee 1949 Moshav TM RC Kishon 498 Zivon Upper Galilee 1980 Kibbutz KA RC Upper Galilee 92 Ẓofar Arabah Valley 1975 Moshav RC Mid Aravah 332 Ẓofit Southern Sharon (Kefar Sava Region) 1933 Moshav TM RC Ha-Sharon ha-Tikhon 811   land of "" population Ẓofiyyah Coastal Plain (Reḥovot Region) 1955 Educational Institution – (RC) Ḥevel Yavneh Zohar Southern Coastal Plain (Lachish Region) 1956 Moshav IH RC Lachish 344 Ẓorah Judean Foothills 1948 Kibbutz IK RC Matteh Yehudah 705 Ẓovah Jerusalem Hills 1948 Kibbutz KM RC Matteh Yehudah 583 Ẓufim Samaria; 67+ 1989 Rural Community RC Shomron 1,048 Ẓukim Arabah Valley 1983 Rural Community RC Mid Aravah Ẓur Hadassah Jerusalem Hills 1960 Rural Center – (RC) Matteh Yehudah 3,623 Ẓuri'el Western Upper Galilee 1950 Moshav PAI RC Ma'aleh ha-Galil 302 Ẓur Moshe Southern Sharon (Kefar Yonah Region) 1937 Moshav TM RC Ha-Sharon ha-Ẓefoni 1,904 Ẓur Natan Southern Sharon 1966 Kibbutz KA (RC) Ha-Sharon ha-Tikhon 224

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • population — [ pɔpylasjɔ̃ ] n. f. • populacion mil. XVIIIe; repris de l angl.; 1335 « peuplement » rare; bas lat. populatio, de populus « peuple » 1 ♦ Ensemble des personnes qui habitent un espace, une terre. La population du globe, de la France, d une ville …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • population — pop‧u‧la‧tion [ˌpɒpjˈleɪʆn ǁ ˌpɑː ] noun 1. [countable, uncountable] the number of people who live in a particular country or area: • a city with a population of over 2 million • Hong Kong s rapid growth in population 2. [countable usually… …   Financial and business terms

  • Population — Pop u*la tion, n. [L. populatio: cf. F. population.] 1. The act or process of populating; multiplication of inhabitants. [1913 Webster] 2. The whole number of people, or inhabitants, in a country, or portion of a country; as, a population of ten… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Population — steht für: fachsprachlich veraltet: Bevölkerung eine Gruppe von Individuen einer Art (Tiere und Pflanzen), die zur gleichen Zeit am selben Ort leben und sich miteinander fortpflanzen können, siehe Population (Biologie) in der Statistik für die… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • population — 1570s, from L.L. populationem (5c., nom. populatio) a people, multitude, as if a noun of action from L. populus people. Population explosion is first attested 1953 …   Etymology dictionary

  • population — [päp΄yə lā′shən] n. [LL populatio] 1. a) all the people in a country, region, etc. b) the number of these c) a (specified) part of the people in a given area [the Japanese population of Hawaii] 2. a populating or being populated …   English World dictionary

  • population — population. См. популяция. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • Population — (v. lat.), 1) Bevölkerung, s.d.; 2) die gesammten Einwohner eines Landes, einer Provinz od. eines Ortes. Daher Populationistik, Bevölkerungsstatistik, s. u. Bevölkerung B); Populationisten, in England Gegner des Malthus, welcher gegen die… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Population — (spätlat.), Bevölkerung …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Population — Populātion (lat.), Bevölkerung (s.d.); Populationístik, s. Bevölkerungstheorie …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Population — Population, Bevölkerung …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon


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